Emily Shared "Cardiac/ Exam 2" - 56 Picmonics

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Cardiac/ Exam 2

Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Troponin
Measures
Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 1 Hour
Peak: 10 - 24 Hours
Return to Normal: 5 - 14 Days
Considerations
Most Specific for Cardiac Muscle
Treated Aggressively
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2 mins
Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Myoglobin
Measures
Skeletal or Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 1 - 4 Hours
Peak: 12 Hours
Return to Normal: 24 Hours
Considerations
Elevation After 24 Hours: Reinfarction
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2 mins
Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Creatine Kinase CK-MB
Measures
Skeletal or Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 4-8 Hours
Peak: 12-24 Hours
Return to Normal: 2-3 Days
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1 min
Types of Heart Failure
Left Sided
Pulmonary Congestion
Right Sided
Peripheral Edema
High Output
Unable to Meet Metabolic Needs
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1 min
Left Heart Failure Assessment
Pulmonary Assessment
Pulmonary Congestion
Pink Frothy Sputum
Wheezing or Crackles
Dyspnea with Exertion
Cough
Systemic Assessment
Fatigue
Tachycardia
Weak Peripheral Pulse
S3, S4 Heart Sounds
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1 min
Right Heart Failure Assessment
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Peripheral Edema
Hepatosplenomegaly
Nocturia
Weight Gain
Ascites
Fatigue
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1 min
Heart Failure Interventions
Diagnostic Tests
Echocardiogram
Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring
Improve Gas Exchange
High Fowler's Position
Oxygen
Advanced Airway
Drugs and Devices
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
ACE Inhibitors
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Pacemaker
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2 mins
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Assessment
Mechanism
Atherosclerosis
Assessment
Bruit
Pulsation in Abdomen
Abdominal or Lower Back Pain
Tearing Pain
Diagnosis
Ultrasound
Considerations
Rupture
Shock
Surgical Repair
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1 min
Acute Pericarditis Assessment
Pericardial Sac Inflammation
Assessment
Sharp Chest Pain
Increased with Inspiration
Pain Decreased by Leaning Forward
Pericardial Friction Rub
Diffuse ST-Elevation
T Wave Inversion
Fever
Considerations
May Be Asymptomatic
Cardiac Tamponade
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2 mins
Endocarditis Assessment
Infection of Inner Layer and Valves
Assessment
Fever
Fatigue
New or Changed Murmurs
Roth's Spots
Splinter Hemorrhages
Janeway Lesions
Osler's Nodes
Considerations
Heart Failure
Embolization
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2 mins
Endocarditis Interventions
Interventions
IV Antibiotics
4-6 Weeks
Anticoagulants
Good Hygiene
Considerations
Closely Monitor
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Dental Procedures
Invasive Procedures
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1 min
Cardiac Catheterization
Considerations
Fluttering Sensation
Contrast Media
NPO 6-12 Hours
After Procedure
Bed Rest
Assess Circulation
Assess for Bleeding
Monitor Vital Signs
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Assessment
Assessment
Substernal Chest Pain
Crushing or Dull Sensation
Arm, Jaw, and Neck
> 20 Minutes
Unrelieved by Nitro
Palpitations
Diaphoresis
Fear of Impending Doom
Nausea and Vomiting
Shortness of Breath
Considerations
Monitor for Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Diagnosis
Diagnosis
12 Lead ECG
ST Elevation
Q Wave
T Wave Inversion
Troponin T and I
CK-MB
Considerations
Early ECG
Cardiac Stress Test
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Interventions
MONA
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
Aspirin
Thrombolytics (tPA)
Invasive Procedures
Cardiac Catheterization
Stent Placement
Angioplasty
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Considerations
Decrease Modifiable Risk Factors
Resuming Activity (Physical, Sexual)
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2 mins
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Indications
ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)
Cardiovascular Disease (CAD)
Uncontrolled Angina
Considerations
Internal Mammary Artery
Saphenous (Leg) Vein
Transient Limb Edema
Closely Monitor Patients
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Prophylaxis
Incentive Spirometer
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2 mins
Evolution of Myocardial Infarction and Complications
Hours to Days
Arrhythmia
Before 7 Days
Fibrinous Pericarditis
Papillary Muscle Rupture
Interventricular Septum Rupture
Before 14 Days
Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm
Ventricular Free Wall Rupture
After 14 Days
True Ventricular Aneurysm
Dressler Syndrome
Other
Left Ventricular Failure
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2 mins
ECG Interpretation
Rate
Rhythm
P Waves
Upright, Rounded, Before Every QRS
PR Interval (< 0.20 seconds)
Normal QRS (< 0.12 seconds)
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2 mins
Parts of an ECG
PQRST
P Wave
Atrial Depolarization
QRS Complex
Ventricular Depolarization
T Wave
Ventricular Repolarization
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2 mins
12 Lead Contiguous Leads - Lateral Wall MI
Leads Elevated
Lead I
Lead aVL
Lead V5
Lead V6
Artery Affected
Circumflex
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1 min

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