ronda Shared "Cardio" - 24 Picmonics

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Cardio

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Assessment
Mechanism
Atherosclerosis
Assessment
Bruit
Pulsation in Abdomen
Abdominal or Lower Back Pain
Tearing Pain
Diagnosis
Ultrasound
Considerations
Rupture
Shock
Surgical Repair
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1 min
Acute Pericarditis Assessment
Pericardial Sac Inflammation
Assessment
Sharp Chest Pain
Increased with Inspiration
Pain Decreased by Leaning Forward
Pericardial Friction Rub
Diffuse ST-Elevation
T Wave Inversion
Fever
Considerations
May Be Asymptomatic
Cardiac Tamponade
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2 mins
Acute Pericarditis Interventions
Interventions
Treat Underlying Disorder
Antibiotics
Colchicine + NSAIDs
Corticosteroids
Place Patient Upright with Head of Bed at 45°
Pericardiocentesis
Pericardial Window
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2 mins
Adenosine (Adenocard)
Mechanism
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Supraventricular Tachycardia (Paroxysmal)
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Flushing
Dyspnea
Considerations
Rapid IV Push
Caffeine and Theophylline Decrease Effectiveness
Dipyridamole May Intensify Effects
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2 mins
Alteplase
Mechanism
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Indications
Thrombosis
Side Effects
Bleeding
Contraindications
Intracranial Hemorrhage
Internal Hemorrhaging
Considerations
Minimize Bleeding
Monitor for Shock
Antidote
Aminocaproic Acid
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2 mins
Arterial Ulcer Assessment
Absent or Decreased Pulses
Intermittent Claudication
Sharp Pain
Dependent Rubor
Well Defined Edges
Over Bony Areas
Smooth, Shiny Skin
Toes, Heels, Lateral Lower Legs
Cool
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2 mins
Arterial Ulcer Interventions
Saline Dressing
Structured Exercise Programs
Fibrinolytics
Antiplatelet Medication
No Caffeine, Nicotine
Surgery
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1 min
Cardiac Cycle - Systole
Characteristics
AV Node
AV Node Conducts Signal to Bundle of His
Bundle of His Signals Purkinje Fibers to Contract Ventricles
Tricuspid Valve Closes
Pulmonary Valve Opens
Mitral Valve Closes
Aortic Valve Opens
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2 mins
Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Creatine Kinase CK-MB
Measures
Skeletal or Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 4-8 Hours
Peak: 12-24 Hours
Return to Normal: 2-3 Days
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1 min
Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Myoglobin
Measures
Skeletal or Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 1 - 4 Hours
Peak: 12 Hours
Return to Normal: 24 Hours
Considerations
Elevation After 24 Hours: Reinfarction
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2 mins
Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Troponin
Measures
Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 1 Hour
Peak: 10 - 24 Hours
Return to Normal: 5 - 14 Days
Considerations
Most Specific for Cardiac Muscle
Treated Aggressively
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2 mins
Cardiac Tamponade
Mechanism
Fluid in the Pericardial Sac
Pericarditis
Decreased Cardiac Output
Signs/Symptoms
Beck's Triad
Hypotension
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Distant Heart Sounds
Pulsus Paradoxus
Electrical Alternans
Treatment
Pericardiocentesis
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1 min
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (Venous Stasis Ulcer) Assessment
Venous Stasis Ulcer
Uneven Edges
Dull Persistent Pain
Medial Malleolus
Necrotic
Normal Pulses
Lower Leg Edema
Bronze-Brown Pigmentation
Warm
Pruritus
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2 mins
Endocarditis Assessment
Infection of Inner Layer and Valves
Assessment
Fever
Fatigue
New or Changed Murmurs
Roth's Spots
Splinter Hemorrhages
Janeway Lesions
Osler's Nodes
Considerations
Heart Failure
Embolization
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2 mins
Endocarditis Interventions
Interventions
IV Antibiotics
4-6 Weeks
Anticoagulants
Good Hygiene
Considerations
Closely Monitor
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Dental Procedures
Invasive Procedures
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1 min
Heart Failure Interventions
Diagnostic Tests
Echocardiogram
Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring
Improve Gas Exchange
High Fowler's Position
Oxygen
Advanced Airway
Drugs and Devices
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
ACE Inhibitors
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Pacemaker
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2 mins
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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1 min
Hypercalcemia
Assessment
> 10.5 mg/dL Ca2+
Pathologic Fractures
Lethargy
Hypercoagulation
Constipation
ECG Changes
QT Shortening
Interventions
No Calcium Intake
Chelating Drugs
Calcitonin
Bisphosphonates
Loop Diuretics instead of Thiazide Diuretics
Considerations
Increased Risk for Renal Calculi
Increase Fluids
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3 mins
Hypermagnesemia
Assessment
Flushing
Lethargy
Muscle Weakness
Decreased Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTRs)
Decreased Respirations
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Interventions
Dialysis
IV Calcium Gluconate
Diuretics
Avoid Antacids and Laxatives containing Mg2+
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2 mins
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mechanisms
Pathophysiology
2/3 Autosomal-Dominant
1/3 Sporadic Type
Mutation in Gene for Sarcomere Protein
Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C
Asymmetric Septal Hypertrophy
Outflow Tract Obstruction
Diastolic Dysfunction
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2 mins

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