Angie Shared "Neuro" - 55 Picmonics

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Neuro

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Characteristics
Frontal Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Temporal Lobe
Occipital Lobe
Medulla Oblongata
Cerebellum
Pons
Spinal Cord
Dorsal Root Ganglia
Grey Matter
White Matter
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2 mins
Motor Neuron Signs UMN and LMN
Upper Motor Neuron (Increases)
Increased DTRs
Positive Babinski
Spastic Paralysis
Clasp-Knife Reaction
Lower Motor Neuron (Decreases)
Decreased DTRs
Negative Babinski
Flaccid Paralysis
Muscle Atrophy
Fasciculations
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2 mins
Electrical Synapse
Characteristics
Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Location
Fast Transmission
Bidirectional
Presynaptic Na+ Floods Through Gap Junction
Na+ Influx Initiates Postsynaptic Action Potential
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2 mins
Chemical Synapse
Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Open
Ca2+ Influx
Vesicle-Membrane Fusion
Exocytosis of Neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitter Binds Post-Synaptic Receptors
Neurotransmitter Breakdown
Neurotransmitter Reuptake
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1 min
Neuron Resting Potential
Characteristics
More Na+ Outside
Sodium-Potassium Pump
K+ Leaks Out
More K+ Inside
About -70mV
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels are Closed
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2 mins
Neuron Action Potential Initiation
Characteristics
Summation of Signals
-50 mV Threshold Value Reached
Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Open
Local Depolarization
Na+ Influx
Potassium Channels open
Repolarization
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2 mins
Neuron Action Potential Propagation
Characteristics
Unidirectional Depolarization
Absolute Refractory Period In Preceding Na+ Channels
Neighboring Voltage Gate Channels Open
Nodes of Ranvier
Myelination Increases Propagation Speed
Saltatory Conduction
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3 mins
Local Anesthetic Overview
Indications
Minor Procedures
Epidurals
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Na+ Channels
State Dependent
Combined with Vasoconstrictors
Infected Tissue Requires Higher Dose
Drugs
Esters
Amides
Side Effects
Arrhythmias
Cardiotoxicity
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1 min
Lidocaine
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Ventricular Arrhythmia
Anesthetic
Side Effects
Paresthesias
Seizures
Respiratory Depression
Drowsiness
Consideration
Anesthetic Effects Extended with Epinephrine
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1 min
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Mechanism and Deficiency
Mechanism
Cobalamin
Large reserve pool in the liver
Homocysteine to methionine
Methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA
Deficiency Signs and Symptoms
Macrocytic Megaloblastic Anemia
Hypersegmented Neutrophils
Neurologic defects
Posterior column
Lateral corticospinal tract
Spinocerebellar tract
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5 mins
Types of Strokes
Warning Signs
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)
Reversible Ischemic Neurologic Deficit (RIND)
Types
Ischemic
Thrombotic
Atherosclerosis
Embolic
Atrial Fibrillation
Hemorrhagic
Severe Hypertension
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3 mins
Middle Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis upper limb and face
Contralateral loss of sensation of upper limb and face
Affects Wernicke's area and Broca's area
Aphasia if Lesion in Dominant (Left) Hemisphere
Hemineglect if lesion in nondominant (right) hemisphere
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1 min
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis of lower limb
Contralateral loss of sensation in lower limb
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1 min
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Assessment
Assessment
Ascending Paralysis
Muscle Weakness
Paresthesias (Pins and Needles)
Diplopia
Difficulty Speaking
Dysphagia
Labile Blood Pressure
Loss of Bowel and Bladder Control
Considerations
Aggressive Airway Management
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2 mins
Cranial Nerve Function
Sensory
CN I
CN II
CN VIII
Motor
CN III
CN IV
CN VI
CN XI
CN XII
Both
CN V
CN VII
CN IX
CN X
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1 min
CN I
Olfactory Nerve
Sensory
Smell
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35 secs
CN II
Optic Nerve
Sensory
Vision
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35 secs
CN III
Oculomotor Nerve
Motor
Eye Movement
Accommodation
Eyelid Opening
Pupillary Constriction
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1 min
CN IV
Trochlear Nerve
Motor
Abducts, Depresses, Internally Rotates
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48 secs
CN V
Trigeminal Nerve
Sensory
Facial Sensation
Motor
Mastication Muscles
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1 min

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