Jake Shared "B4 PHARM1" - 29 Picmonics

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B4 PHARM1

High Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Atria Release Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Vasodilation
Antagonizes Aldosterone
Na+ and Water Excreted
1 min
Low Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Posterior Pituitary Releases Vasopressin
Vasoconstriction
Adrenal Cortex Releases Aldosterone
Increased Na+ and H2O Reabsorption
1 min
Blood Pressure Classification (JNC 7)
Classifications
Normal
Systolic (< 120)
Diastolic (< 80)
Prehypertension
Systolic +20 (120-139)
Diastolic +10 (80-89)
Stage 1 Hypertension
Systolic +20 (140-159)
Diastolic +10 (90-99)
Stage 2 Hypertension
Systolic + > 20 (160)
Diastolic + > 10 (100)
Hypertensive Crisis
Systolic > 180
Diastolic > 110
4 mins
Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
1 min
Hypertension Management (JNC-8)
Goal of Treatment
Age Over 60 years (and Healthy)
150/90
Age Under 60 years (and Healthy)
Any Age with Diabetes or CKD
140/90
Treatment
ARB/ACE-I/Thiazide/CCB (Primary or Combo)
CKD (w/wo Diabetes)
ARB or ACE-I Primary
African American
Thiazide or CCB Primary
3 mins
Hypertension Assessment
Mechanism
Essential Hypertension
Secondary Hypertension
Assessment
Headache
Vision Changes
Nosebleed (Epistaxis)
Chest Pain
Syncope (Fainting)
Diagnosis
Average 2 Sets, 2 Minutes Apart
After 2 or More Visits
Nursing Considerations
Take BP Both Arms
Common in African Americans
2 mins
Hypertension Intervention
Lifestyle Modifications
Weight Reduction and Exercise
Diet Changes
Relaxation Techniques
Smoking Cessation
Medications
Encourage Self Monitoring
1 min
Acetazolamide
Indications
Glaucoma
Altitude Sickness
Pseudotumor Cerebri
CHF
Metabolic Alkalosis
Mechanism of Action
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Diuresis
Side Effects
Metabolic Acidosis
Paresthesias
1 min
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Indications
Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Glaucoma
Drug Overdose
Mechanism of Action
Osmotic diuretic
Increased Urine Flow
Side Effects
Dehydration
Contraindications
Anuria
CHF
2 mins
Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl-
Sulfa Drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Gout
Ototoxicity
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
4 mins
Ethacrynic Acid
Mechanism of Action
Non-sulfa Drug
Phenoxyacetic Acid Derivative
Loop Diuretic
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl- Cotransporter
Thick Ascending Loop of Henle
Clinical Use
Diuresis
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Ototoxicity
Gout
2 mins
Thiazide Diuretics
Early Distal Tubule
Inhibits NaCl Reabsorption
Sulfa Drug
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hypercalcemia
Hyperuricemia
Hyponatremia
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
2 mins
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
1 min
K+ Sparing Diuretics
Indications
CHF and Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Hyperaldosteronism
Mechanism of Action
Collecting Tubule
Spironolactone
Competitive Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist
Amiloride and Triamterene
Block Na+ Channels
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
2 mins
Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Mechanisms
Inhibition of Aldosterone
Potassium Retention
Indications
Hypertension
Edema
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Endocrine Effects
Consideration
Avoid Potassium Supplements
2 mins
ACE Inhibitor Toxicity
CAPTOPRIL Mnemonic
Cough
Angioedema
Potassium Changes (Hyperkalemia)
Taste Change
Hypotension
Pregnancy Changes
Rash
Increased Renin
Lower Angiotensin II
2 mins
ACE Inhibitors
-Pril Suffix
Indications
Hypertension
CHF
Diabetic Nephropathy
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits ACE
Decreases GFR
Inhibits Constriction of Efferent Arteriole
Side Effect
Increased Bradykinin
Cough
1 min
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
-sartan suffix
Indications
Hypertension
CHF
Diabetic Nephropathy
Mechanism of Action
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
Side Effect
Hyperkalemia
Contraindication
Pregnancy
1 min
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil and Diltiazem)
Mechanism of Action
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Angina Pectoris
Essential Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Constipation
Peripheral Edema
Gingival Hyperplasia
Nursing Consideration
Medication Education
2 mins
Cardiovascular Effects of Beta-Blockers
Cardiac Myocytes and Vasculature
Decrease cAMP
Decreases SA and AV Node Conduction Velocity
Lower Blood Pressure
Decrease O2 Consumption
Decreases Mortality Post-MI
2 mins

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