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Aminoglycoside drug class
Interferes with 30S component of ribosome
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2nd line)
Resistance in mycobacterium is via ribosomal alterations (as well as other aminoglycoside mechanisms of resistance)
Nephrotoxicity especially with aminoglycosides
MOA: Similar to sulfonamides, but structurally distinct agent (Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase)
Leprosy (lepromatous and tuberculoid)
Pneumocystis jirovecii prophylaxis
Dermatitis herpetiformis (celiac disease)
Hemolysis if G6PD deficient
Fever, rash and methemogloinemia
MOA: Lipopeptide that disrupts cell membrane of gram ⊕ cocci; Bactericidal
S aureus skin infections (especially MRSA), bacteremia, endocarditis, VRE
Not used for pneumonia (avidly binds to and is inactivated by surfactant)
Depolarizes cellular membrane by creating transmembrane channels
U. In the USA its mostly due to alcohol and smoking
Caustic injestion is another cause
Arises anywhere in the esophagus
Synthetic analog of aldosterone with little glucocorticoid effects
Mineralocorticoid replacement in 1° adrenal insufficiency
Similar to glucocorticoids
Exacerbation of heart failure
Sensitizes Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) in parathyroid gland to circulating Ca2+ causing a decrease in PTH
Indication: 1° or 2° (secondary in dialysis patients) hyperparathyroidism
Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism
2° hyperplasia due to decreased Ca2+ absorption and/or increased PO4 3−
Chronic renal disease (causes hypovitaminosis D decreased Ca2+ absorption)
Increased ALP and PTH
Refractory (autonomous) hyperparathyroidism
Result of chronic renal disease
Highly increased PTH, increased calcium
Bone pain and an elevated bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (due to high bone turnover)
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