With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Whether you're studying for your classes or getting ready for a big exam, we're here to help.
Mucus Filters and Moistens
Larynx (Voice Box)
Cilia Expel Mucus and Dust
Alveolar Gas Exchange
Pulmonary Artery Blood is O2-Poor, CO2-Rich
Two-Cell Thick Air-Blood Barrier
CO2 Diffuses Into Air
O2 Diffuses Into Blood
Pulmonary Vein is O2-Rich, CO2-Poor
Physiologic Dead Space (VD)
Tidal Volume (VT)
Partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2)
Partial pressure of CO2 in expired air (PECO2)
VD = TV x (PaCO2-PECO2) / PaCO2
Partial pressure of alveolar oxygen (PAO2)
Partial Pressure of Arterial O2 (PaO2)
Normal 10 to 15 mmHg
Hypoxemia with an Abnormal A-a Gradient
Shunting (Low V/Q)
Dead space (high V/Q)
Alveolar Gas Equation
Partial Pressure of Alveolar Oxygen (PAO2)
Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Inspired Air (PIO2)
PIO2 Normally Approximated = 150 mmHg
Arterial Partial Pressure of CO2 (PaCO2)
Respiratory Quotient (R)
R Normally Approximated = 0.8
PAO2 = PIO2 - (PaCO2/R)
Evaluates Respiratory Compensation
Used in Metabolic Acidosis
(HCO3 x 1.5 ) + 8 plus-minus 2 = PCO2
Bicarbonate (HCO3) x 1.5
= Expected Value for PCO2
Determines Transudative vs. Exudative Source of Pleural Effusion
Exudate if (At Least One of the Following):
Effusion/Serum Protein Ratio > 0.5
Effusion/Serum LDH Ratio > 0.6
Effusion LDH > Two-thirds Upper Serum LDH Range
Lung Sounds - Wheezes
Air Moving through Narrowed Airways
Lung Sounds - Crackles
Fine: Twisting Hair through Fingers
Collapsed Small Airways and Alveoli "Popping Open"
Ace Your Medicine (MD/DO) Classes & Exams with Picmonic:
Over 1,720,000 students use Picmonic’s picture mnemonics to improve knowledge, retention, and exam performance.
Choose the #1 Medicine (MD/DO) student study app.
Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medicine (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help.
Works better than traditional Medicine (MD/DO) flashcards.
Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores.