Samantha Shared "patho exam 4" - 105 Picmonics

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patho exam 4

Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Lower Quadrants
Right Lower Quadrant
Appendicitis
Salpingitis
Left Lower Quadrant
Sigmoid Volvulus
Sigmoid Diverticulitis
Lower Quadrant (Both/Either)
Ectopic Pregnancy
Ovarian Torsion
Renal Calculi
Pyelonephritis
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2 mins
Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Midepigastrium and Diffuse
Midepigastrium
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Pancreatitis
Aortic Dissection
Myocardial Infarction
Any Place
Peritonitis
Hemorrhage or Perforation
Bowel Obstruction
Strangulation
Acute Hepatitis
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2 mins
Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Upper Quadrants
Right Upper Quadrant
Cholecystitis
Biliary Colic
Cholangitis
Perforated Duodenal Ulcer
Acute Hepatitis
Left Upper Quadrant
Splenic Rupture
IBS (Splenic Flexure Syndrome)
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2 mins
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Assessment
Pathophysiology
Relaxed Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Signs and Symptoms
Dyspepsia (Indigestion)
Belching
Nighttime Coughing
Dysphagia
Epigastric Pain
Regurgitation
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Globus
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2 mins
Barrett's Esophagus
Histological findings
Metaplasia in Lower Esophagus
Columnar Epithelium
Associated Pathologies
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Esophagitis
Esophageal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
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1 min
Mallory-Weiss
Characteristics
Bleeding From Tears in Mucosa
Forceful Vomiting
Alcoholism
Eating Disorders (Bulimia)
Painful Hematemesis
Diagnosis
Endoscopy
Management
Observation
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2 mins
Peptic Ulcer Disease Interventions
Combination Drug Therapy
Two Antibiotics
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
Decrease Acid Secretion
Avoid NSAIDs
Diet and Lifestyle Changes
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1 min
Peptic Ulcer Disease Assessment
Mechanism/Cause
Helicobacter Pylori
Increased Stomach Acid
Assessment
Abdominal Pain
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Melena
Weight Changes
GI Distress
Considerations
Most Commonly in Duodenum
Duodenal: Pain Relieved by Eating
Gastric: Pain Caused by Eating
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2 mins
Gastroenteritis
Cause/Mechanism
Viruses
Bacteria
Food Intolerances
Assessment
Flu-Like Symptoms
GI Distress
Bloody Stool
Interventions
Oral Rehydration
Considerations
Self-Limiting
Prevention
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2 mins
Acute Gastritis
Erosive
Disruption of Mucosal Barrier
Caused by Stress
NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
Alcohol
Uremia
Burns
Curling's Ulcer
Brain Injury
Cushing Ulcer
Increase H+ Production
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1 min
Chronic Gastritis
Type A
Type A
Fundus and Body
Autoimmune
Autoantibodies to Parietal Cells
Pernicious Anemia
Achlorhydria
Type B
Type B
Most Common Type
Helicobacter pylori
Antrum
Increased Risk of MALT Lymphoma
Associations
HIV/AIDS
Crohn's Disease
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3 mins
Stomach Cancer
Adenocarcinoma
Intestinal Type
Intestinal Type
Smoked Foods Containing Nitrosamines
Achlorhydria
Type A Blood
Helicobacter pylori
Diffuse Type
Diffuse Type
Signet Ring Cells
Linitis Plastica (Leather Bottle Stomach)
Assessment
Acanthosis Nigricans
Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node
Virchow's Node
Subcutaneous Periumbilical Mets
Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule
Complications
Bilateral mets to ovaries
Krukenberg's tumor
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3 mins
Helicobacter Pylori
Characteristics
Gram-Negative
Bacilli
Curved
Polar Flagellum
Catalase-Positive
Oxidase-Positive
Disease
Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers
Ammonia
Alkaline Environment
Gastric adenocarcinoma
MALT lymphoma
Diagnosis
Serology IgG antibody
Stool antigen
Urease positive breath test
Biopsy
Treatment
2 ABX and PPI
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2 mins
Helicobacter pylori Associations
Gastritis
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Stomach Cancer
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50 secs
Colorectal Cancer Assessment
3rd Most Common Cancer
Assessment
Change in Bowel Habits
Bowel Obstruction
Rectal Bleeding
Anemia
Weight Loss
Ascites
Considerations
Colonoscopy
FOBT and FIT
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2 mins
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Assessment
Abdominal Pain
Relieved by Defecation
Alternating Diarrhea and Constipation
Fatigue
Excessive Flatulence
Sensation of Incomplete Evacuation
Considerations
Stressors
Food Intolerances
More Common in Women
Rule Out Other Disorders
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2 mins
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Interventions
Interventions
Identify Triggers
Increase Fiber Intake
Probiotics
Anticholinergics
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs)
Loperamide
Linaclotide
Medications for Women
Tegaserod (Zelnorm)
Lubiprostone (Amitiza)
Alosetron (Lotronex)
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2 mins
Types of Intestinal Obstruction
Mechanical
Adhesions
Hernia
Volvulus
Intussusception
Tumor
Non-Mechanical
Mesenteric Artery Occlusion
Spinal Injury
Paralytic Ileus
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2 mins
Intestinal Obstruction
Partial/Early Obstruction
Severe Abdominal Pain
Vomiting
High Pitched Bowel Sounds
Abdominal Distention
Increased Peristalsis
Total/Neurogenic Obstruction
Absent Bowel Sounds
Paralytic Ileus
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1 min
Celiac Disease Characteristics
Epidemiology
European Descent
HLA-DQ2
HLA-DQ8
Pathophysiology
Autoimmune-mediated Intolerance of Gliadin
Symptoms
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Weight Loss
Failure to Thrive
Decreased Bone Density
Steatorrhea
Anemia
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2 mins

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