Carlos Shared "12 Cardio Pharm" - 32 Picmonics

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12 Cardio Pharm

Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
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1 min
Hypertension in pregnancy
Hydralazine
Labetalol
Methyldopa
Nifedipine
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Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil and Diltiazem)
Mechanism of Action
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Angina Pectoris
Arrhythmias
Essential Hypertension
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Constipation
Peripheral Edema
Gingival Hyperplasia
Nursing Consideration
Medication Education
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2 mins
Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blockers 298
Amlodipine, clevidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nimodipine -dipine ending
Dihydropyridines, act on vascular smooth muscle
Block voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels of cardiac and smooth muscle decreasing muscle contractility (bigger effect on vasculature than heart)
Indications
Dihydropyridines (except nimodipine): hypertension, angina (including Prinzmetal), Raynaud phenomenon
Clevidipine and nicardipine: hypertensive urgency or emergency
Nimodipine: subarachnoid hemorrhage (prevents cerebral vasospasm)
Nifedipine: hypertension in pregnancy and tacolytic agent
Side Effects
Peripheral edema, flushing, dizziness, gingival hyperplasia
Reflex tachycardia
Headache
C. GERD
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Hydralazine
Indications
Reduce Afterload
Severe Hypertension
Safe during Pregnancy
CHF
Mechanism of Action
Increases cGMP
Vasodilates Arterioles
Side Effects
Drug-induced Lupus
Reflex Tachycardia
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1 min
Fenoldopam
Dopamine D1 receptor agonist
Coronary, peripheral, renal, and splanchnic vasodilation
Decreased BP, Increased natriuresis
Postoperatively as an antihypertensive
SE: hypotension and tachycardia
Hypertensive crisis
Sympathomimetic
Especially useful in acute kidney injury
Increases cAMP
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Nitroglycerin
Indications
Pulmonary Edema
Angina
Mechanism of Action
Decreases Preload
Releases NO in Blood
Side Effects
Hypotension
Reflex Tachycardia
Flushing
Monday Disease
Contraindications
Viagra (Sildenafil)
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2 mins
Ranolazine
Mechanism
inhibits late sodium current
reduces diastolic wall tension
Decrease O2 consumption
Clinical Use
Angina
Adverse Effects
Constipation
Dizziness
Headaches
QT Prolongation
Nausea
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Statins
Rhabdomyolysis
Hepatotoxicity
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Decrease LDL
Decrease Triglycerides
Increase HDL
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2 mins
Ezetimibe
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Cholesterol Absorption Blocker
Decreases LDL
Side Effects
Diarrhea
Increased LFT Values
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56 secs
Niacin Therapy (Vitamin B3)
Mechanism
Inhibits Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue
Reduces Hepatic VLDL Secretion
Indications
Decrease Triglycerides
Decrease LDL
Increase HDL
Side Effects
Flushing
Decreased by Aspirin
Hyperglycemia
Hyperuricemia
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2 mins
Bile Acid Resins
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Bile Acid Reabsorption Prevented
Slight Increase HDL/Triglycerides
Decrease LDL
Drugs
Colestipol (Colestid)
Cholestyramine
Colesevelam
Side Effects
Cholesterol Gallstones
Decreased Absorption of Fat-soluble Vitamins
Patients Hate It
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2 mins
Fibrates
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Upregulate LPL
Decreases Triglycerides
Slight Increase in HDL
Slight Decrease in LDL
Side Effect
Hepatotoxicity
Cholesterol Gallstones
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1 min
Lipid-lowering agents Diagram
Acetyl CoA
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
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Digoxin Mechanism and Indication
Direct inhibition of Na K ATPase
Indirect inhibition of Na Ca exchanger
Increase Ca in cell
Positive Inotropy
CHF
Stimulates Vagus Nerve
Decreased conduction at AV node
Atrial Fibrillation
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1 min
Acute Digoxin Toxicity
Clinical Symptoms
Hyperkalemia
Cholinergic (Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea)
Blurry Yellow Green Vision with Halo of Light
Arrhythmia
Bradycardia
EKG Changes
Prolonged PR interval
Decreased QT
Scooping on EKG
T Wave Inversion
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2 mins
Digoxin Toxicity Treatment
Activated Charcoal
Slowly Normalize K+
Digibind (Anti-Digoxin Fab)
Magnesium Sulfate
Lidocaine
Cardiac Pacing
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2 mins
Class I Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers) Overview
Indications
Arrhythmias
Local Anesthesia
Mechanism of Action
Block or Slow Conduction
Block Na+ Channels
Raise Threshold
State Dependent
Contraindication
Hyperkalemia
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1 min
Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
Mechanism of Action
Increase AP, ERP, and QT interval.
Drugs
Disopyramide
Procainamide
Drug-induced Lupus
Quinidine
Cinchonism
Shared Side Effects
Thrombocytopenia
Torsades de Pointes
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1 min
Class IB Antiarrhythmics (Na+ Channel Blockers)
Indications
Arrhythmias
After Myocardial Infarction
Mechanism of Action
Affect Ischemic Tissue
Decrease AP duration
Drugs
Mexiletine
GI Upset
Lidocaine
CNS Depression
Tocainide
Phenytoin
Hirsutism
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2 mins

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