Joyce Shared "Block 2 Endocrine" - 28 Picmonics

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Block 2 Endocrine

11 Beta-Hydroxylase Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Decreased Cortisol
Decreased Aldosterone
Increased Sex Hormones
Increased 11 Deoxycorticosterone (11 DOC)
Signs and Symptoms
Hypertension
Masculinization
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1 min
17 Alpha Hydroxylase Deficiency
Decreased Cortisol
Decreased Sex Hormones
Increased Mineralocorticoids (DOC)
Hypertension
Hypokalemia
XY Externally Phenotypic Female
No Internal Reproductive Structures Due to Mullerian Inhibitory Factor
XX Externally Phenotypic Female
Sexual Infantilism
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2 mins
21 Hydroxylase Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Decreased Cortisol
Increased 17 Hydroxyprogesterone
Decreased Aldosterone
Signs and Symptoms
Hypotension
Increased Renin
Hyperkalemia
Female Pseudohermaphroditism
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2 mins
Posterior Pituitary
Characteristics
Neuroendocrine Reflex Stimulation (By Hypothalamus)
Direct Hormones
Vasopressin
Increased Water Retention (In Kidneys)
Oxytocin
Increased Uterine Contraction
Mammary Glands Contraction
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2 mins
Anterior Pituitary
Characteristics
Hypothalamic Control
FLAT PeG Mnemonic
Tropic Hormones
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Direct Hormones
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth Hormone (GH)
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2 mins
Adrenal Gland (Advanced)
Characteristics
Adrenal Cortex
Zona Glomerulosa
Aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata
Cortisol
Zona Reticularis
Androgens
Adrenal Medulla
Chromaffin Cells
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
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2 mins
Pancreas
Characteristics
Acinar Cells Release Digestive Enzymes
Ductal Epithelial Cells Release Bicarbonate
Islets of Langerhans
Beta Cells Release Insulin
Alpha Cells Release Glucagon
Delta Cells Release Somatostatin
Somatostatin Inhibits Alpha and Beta Cells
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3 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Symptoms And Diagnosis
Symptoms/Findings
Osteoporosis
Amenorrhea
Truncal Obesity
Skin Changes
Buffalo Hump
Immune Suppression
Moon Facies
Hypertension
Decreased Insulin Sensitivity
Diagnosis
24-hour urine free Cortisol
Dexamethasone Suppression Test
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2 mins
Addison's Disease
Mechanism
Chronic 1° Adrenal Insufficiency
Atrophy
Destruction
Symptoms
Deficiency In Cortisol And Aldosterone
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Increased POMC
Hypotension
Hyperkalemia
Acidosis
Addisonian Crisis
Diagnosis
ACTH (Cosyntropin) Stimulation Test
Treatment
Exogenous Cortisol
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2 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Characteristics
More Common in Women
Exogenous Etiologies
Glucocorticoids
Endogenous Etiologies
Decreased ACTH
Primary Adrenal Disease
Increased ACTH
Pituitary Adenoma (Cushing's Disease)
Paraneoplastic: Small Cell Carcinoma
CRF-releasing Tumors
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2 mins
Graves' Disease Characteristics
Women 20-40 years old
Pathophysiology
Anti-TSH Receptor Antibodies
Symptoms
Ophthalmopathy
Exophthalmos
Hyperthyroidism
Goiter
Pretibial Myxedema
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1 min
Thyroid Gland
Characteristics
TSH Stimulates T3 and T4 Release
Metabolism Regulation
Blood Calcium Sensor
Calcitonin Release
Blood Calcium Decreases
Bone Building
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2 mins
Parathyroid Gland
Characteristics
Blood Calcium Sensor
Parathyroid Hormone
Bone Resorption
Blood Calcium Increases
Vitamin D Activation
Calcium Absorption From The Small Intestine
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1 min
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
Symptoms
Hypothyroidism with Bouts of Hyperthyroidism
Enlarged, Nontender Thyroid
Mechanism
Autoimmune
Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO)
Anti-Thyroglobulin
Lab Findings
Hurthle Cells
Lymphoid Follicles
Associations
HLA-DR5 and HLA-DR3
Increased Risk Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
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2 mins
Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Assessment
Hypercalcemia
Kidney Stones
Osteoporosis
Arrhythmias
Diagnostic Tests
Increased Calcium and Decreased Phosphorus
Considerations
Prevent Injury
Medication Education
Surgery
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1 min
Hypoparathyroidism
Assessment
Hypocalcemia
Lethargy
Tetany
Arrhythmias
Diagnostic Tests
Decreased Calcium and Increased Phosphorus
Considerations
IV Calcium Chloride
Rebreather Mask
Lifelong Medications
Oral Calcium Supplements with Vitamin D
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2 mins
Renal Corpuscle
Characteristics
Arterioles
Glomerulus
Capillaries
Fenestrations
Plasma Solutes and Other Small Molecules Become Ultrafiltrate
Bowman's Capsule Encapsulates Glomerulus
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2 mins
Blood Acid-Base Control
Characteristics
In a State of Acidemia
Medullary Chemoreceptors Control Ventilation Rate
Expulsion of CO2 through Lungs Increases pH
Bicarbonate Reabsorption from the Kidney Increases pH
Kidney Excretion of H+ Increases pH
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2 mins
Urinary Excretory Anatomy
Characteristics
Renal Medulla
Renal Cortex
Nephron
Bowman's Capsule
Glomerulus
Proximal Tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal Tubule
Collecting Duct
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
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2 mins
Nephritic Syndrome
Inflammatory
Hematuria
RBC casts
Increased Nitrogen in blood
Oliguria
Hypertension
Proteinuria < 3.5 grams per day
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2 mins

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