Shannon Shared "pharm test 2" - 15 Picmonics

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pharm test 2

Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick ascending limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl-
Sulfa drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Ototoxicity from Rapid Injection
Gout
Dehydration
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
Orthostatic Hypotension
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2 mins
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Ends in "-sartan"
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Angiotensin II Receptor
Indications
Hypertension
Side Effects
Angioedema
Contraindications
Renal Artery Stenosis
Pregnancy
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1 min
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil and Diltiazem)
Mechanism of Action
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Angina Pectoris
Arrhythmias
Essential Hypertension
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Constipation
Peripheral Edema
Gingival Hyperplasia
Nursing Consideration
Medication Education
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2 mins
Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Mechanisms
Inhibition of Aldosterone
Potassium Retention
Indications
Hypertension
Edema
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Endocrine Effects
Consideration
Avoid Potassium Supplements
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2 mins
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Clotting Factors
Indications
Atrial Fibrillation
Venous Thrombosis
Pulmonary Embolism
Assessment
PT/INR Levels
Observe for Bleeding
Contraindications
Pregnancy
Nursing Considerations
Vitamin K and Fresh Frozen Plasma
Prolonged Therapeutic Onset
Maintain Same Diet
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2 mins
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Mechanism
Osmotic Diuresis
Indications
Reducing Intracranial Pressure
Reducing Intraocular Pressure
Renal Failure Prophylaxis
Side Effects
Edema
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance
Considerations
Avoid Use in Cardiac Patients
IV Administration
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2 mins
Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
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1 min
Beta Blockers
"-olol" suffix
Mechanism
Decreases Heart Rate and Contractility
Decreases Peripheral Vascular Resistance
Decreases Renin Release
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Angina Pectoris
Contraindications
Asthma and Heart Block Patients
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
Masking Signs of Hypoglycemia
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
"-pril" Suffix
Mechanism of Action
Block Renin Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Dry Non-productive Cough
Hypotension
Dizziness
Possible Hyperkalemia
Angioedema
Nursing Considerations
Slowly Change Position
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Heparin (Unfractionated)
Mechanism of Action
Suppresses Coagulation
Indications
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
Pulmonary Embolism
Side Effects
Hemorrhage
Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Considerations
Monitor aPTT
Preferred (Safe) During Pregnancy
Antidote
Protamine Sulfate
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2 mins
Enoxaparin (Lovenox)
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Clotting Factors
Factor Xa
Indications
Clot Formation Prevention
Side Effects
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Bleeding
Considerations
Medication Education
Subcutaneous Injection
2 Inches from Umbilicus or Incisions
Antidote
Protamine Sulfate
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2 mins
Alteplase
Mechanism
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Indications
Thrombosis
Side Effects
Bleeding
Contraindications
Intracranial Hemorrhage
Internal Hemorrhaging
Considerations
Minimize Bleeding
Monitor for Shock
Antidote
Aminocaproic Acid
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2 mins
Direct Cholinomimetics
Muscarinic agonists
Bethanechol
Bladder and Bowels
Methacholine
Bronchoconstriction
Pilocarpine
Contracts ciliary muscle and pupillary sphincter
Carbachol
Releases intraocular pressure
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1 min
Indirect Cholinomimetics
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Doesn't Cross BBB
Edrophonium
Myasthenia Gravis (Diagnosis)
Pyridostigmine and Neostigmine
Myasthenia Gravis (Tx)
Ileus
Crosses BBB
Physostigmine
Atropine Overdose
Glaucoma
Donepezil
Alzheimer's
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2 mins
Anticholinergics
B.O.AT.S Acronym
Benztropine
Parkinson's Disease
Oxybutynin
Decrease bladder spasms
Atropine
Mydriasis and Cycloplegia
Scopolamine
Motion Sickness
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1 min

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