Matthew Shared "HO Exam 2 Quiz" - 44 Picmonics

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HO Exam 2 Quiz

Microcytic Anemia Causes
MCV < 80
Causes
Thalassemias
Chronic Disease or Illness
Lead Toxicity
Late Iron Deficiency
Sideroblastic Anemia
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1 min
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Causes
Malnutrition/Malabsorption
Hemorrhage
Signs
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Decreased Heme Synthesis
Labs
Decreased Reticulocytes
Decreased Ferritin
Increased Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
Poikilocytosis
Anisocytosis
Increased Central Pallor
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2 mins
Beta Thalassemia
Mechanism
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Mediterranean Populations
Decreased Beta-Globin
Beta-Thalassemia Minor
Increased HbA2
No Intervention
Beta-thalassemia Major
Blood Transfusions
Hemochromatosis
Crew-cut on Skull X-Ray
Diagnosis
Electrophoresis
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2 mins
Macrocytic Anemia Causes
MCV > 100
Megaloblastic
B12 Deficiency
Folate Deficiency
Orotic Aciduria
Non Megaloblastic
Alcoholism
Liver Disease
Reticulocytosis
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2 mins
Folate Deficiency
Clinical Features
Macrocytic Anemia
Megaloblastic Anemia
Etiologies
Malabsorption
Dietary
Tea and Toast
Alcoholics
Medication-induced
Methotrexate
Trimethoprim
Increased Requirement
Hemolytic Anemia
Pregnancy
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2 mins
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Deficiency Causes
Causes
Vegans
Pernicious Anemia
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Malabsorption
Sprue
Enteritis
Crohn's Disease
Diphyllobothrium latum
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4 mins
Normocytic Nonhemolytic Anemia Causes
MCV 80-100
Nonhemolytic
Anemia of Chronic Disease/Inflammation
Aplastic Anemia
Chronic Kidney Disease
Early Iron Deficiency
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1 min
Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia Causes
Intrinsic Hemolytic
Hereditary Spherocytosis
RBC Enzyme Deficiency
Hemoglobin C Defect
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Sickle Cell Anemia
Extrinsic Hemolytic
Autoimmune
Microangiopathic
Mechanical Destruction
Prosthetic Cardiac Valves
Infection
Snake Venom
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2 mins
Hereditary Spherocytosis Disease
Northern Europeans
Mechanisms
Autosomal Dominant
Spectrin/Ankyrin Deficiency
Spherocyte Formation
Hemolytic Anemia
Symptoms
Bilirubin Gallstones
Jaundice
Splenomegaly
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3 mins
Hereditary Spherocytosis Diagnosis & Treatment
Labs
Increased MCHC
Spherocytes
Normocytic Anemia
Diagnosis
Osmotic Fragility Test
Treatment
Splenectomy
Folic Acid
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1 min
G6PD Deficiency
X-linked Recessive
Hemolytic Anemia
Inflammatory Response
Fava Beans
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Anti TB Drugs
Heinz Bodies
Bite Cells
Prevalent Among African Americans due to Increased Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Pathophysiology
Defective PIG-A Gene
Deficiency of DAF (Decay Accelerating Factor CD55)
Symptoms
Dark Urine in the Morning
Intravascular Hemolysis
Thrombosis
Diagnosis
Decreased CD55 and CD59
Treatment
RBC Transfusion
Eculizumab
Bone Marrow Transplant is Curative
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3 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Mechanism)
Intrinsic Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia
Point Mutation
Autosomal Recessive
African-American
Dehydration or Decreased O2
Newborns Asymptomatic
Heterozygote Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Signs and Complications)
Signs
Crew-cut on Skull X-ray
Complications
Auto-splenectomy
Painful Crisis
Aplastic Crisis
Splenic-sequestration Crisis
Hyper-hemolytic Syndrome
Renal Papillary Necrosis
Salmonella osteomyelitis
Pulmonary Hypertension
Hyposthenuria
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2 mins
Warm Agglutinin Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (W-AIHA)
Pathophysiology
Most Common Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
IgG Coats RBCs at Warm Temperatures
Fc Portion of IgG Recognized By Macrophages
Extravascular Hemolysis
Medications
Alpha Methyldopa
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Diagnosis
Positive Coombs Test
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Splenectomy
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Rituximab
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3 mins
Cold Agglutinin Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (C-AIHA)
Pathophysiology
IgM Binds to RBCs at Cold Temperatures (28-31C)
Intravascular Hemolysis
Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
Infectious Mononucleosis
Lymphomas and CLL
Symptoms
Acral Cyanosis with Cold Exposure
Blue Fingers and Toes
Diagnosis
Positive Coombs Test
Treatment
Avoid Cold
Rituximab
+/- Fludarabine
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3 mins
Clotting Overview
Characteristics
Endothelial Cells are Damaged
Platelets Respond to Exposed Collagen and Stick
Platelets Release Recruiting Factors
More Platelets are Attracted
Soluble Fibrinogen Turns to Insoluble Fibrin
Fibrin Seals the Clot
Clot Dissolves
Liver Produces Clotting Factors
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2 mins
Coagulation Cascade
Secondary Hemostasis
Intrinsic Pathway
Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
Heparin
Extrinsic Pathway
Prothrombin Time (PT)
Warfarin
Common Pathway
Thrombin
Convert Fibrinogen to Fibrin
Stabilizes the Platelet Plug
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2 mins
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Children
Pathophysiology
Preceded by Acute Diarrheal Illness
Endothelial Damage
Classic Triad of Symptoms
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia (MAHA)
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Failure
Labs
Helmet cells
LDH
Treatment
Dialysis
Supportive
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2 mins
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Inhibition or deficiency of ADAMTS 13
vWF Multimers are not degraded
Microthrombi (and Emboli)
Symptoms
FAT RN Pentad
Fever
Anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Dysfunction
Neurologic Abnormalities (Altered Mental status)
Treatment
Plasmapheresis
Corticosteroids
Splenectomy
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2 mins

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