Minna Shared "Exam V" - 69 Picmonics

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Exam V

Urinary Tract Infection Prevention and Treatment
Prevention
Shower after Sex
Urinate after Sex
Wipe front to Back
Treatments and Considerations
I and Os with Daily Weights
Increase Water Intake
Antibiotics
Avoid Caffeine
Dr Appointment in 2 Weeks
Void every 2 - 4 hours
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2 mins
Urinary Tract Infection Symptoms
More common in Elderly
Most common in Females and Babies
Change in LOC
Dehydration
Fever
Urgency
Urethra Infection
Burning
Smelly Urine
Dark Cloudy Urine
Frequency of Urination
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54 secs
Collecting Duct
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorption via Passive Transport
Vasopressin Causes Water reabsorption
Concentrates Filtrate
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2 mins
Distal Tubule
Characteristics
Hormonally Regulated
Aldosterone Causes Na+ Reabsorption
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water follows Na+
Parathyroid Hormone Causes Ca2+ Reabsorption
Leads to Collecting Duct
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1 min
Urinary Excretory Anatomy
Characteristics
Renal Medulla
Renal Cortex
Nephron
Bowman's Capsule
Glomerulus
Proximal Tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal Tubule
Collecting Duct
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
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2 mins
Loop of Henle
Characteristics
Descending Limb
Water Follows Na+
Medullary Hypertonicity
Increased Water Reabsorption
Vasa Recta
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Ascending Limb
Reabsorbs Na+, K+, Cl-
Decreased Concentration of Filtrate
Impermeable to Water
Distal Tubule
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2 mins
Proximal Tubule
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water Follows Na+
Most Of Glucose Reabsorbed
Most Of Amino Acids Reabsorbed
Bicarbonate Exchanged For H+
Drugs and Toxins Excreted
Filtrate Osmolarity Same As Plasma
Leads To Loop Of Henle
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2 mins
Renal Corpuscle
Characteristics
Arterioles
Glomerulus
Capillaries
Fenestrations
Plasma Solutes and Other Small Molecules Become Ultrafiltrate
Bowman's Capsule Encapsulates Glomerulus
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2 mins
Acute Glomerulonephritis Interventions
Rest
Restrict Salt and Fluid Intake
Restrict Protein
Antihypertensives
Diuretics
Antibiotics
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2 mins
Aspirin Poisoning (Salicylism) Assessment
Early Symptoms
Nausea and Vomiting
Tinnitus
Confusion
Hyperventilation
Respiratory Alkalosis
Late Symptoms
Metabolic Acidosis
Coma
Hyperthermia
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1 min
Chronic Glomerulonephritis Interventions
Corticosteroids
Antihypertensives
Erythropoietin
Cytotoxic Agents
Dialysis
Plasmapheresis
Transplant
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2 mins
Chronic Kidney Disease Early Symptoms Assessment
Characteristics
GFR < 60mL/min
Accumulation of Waste Products
Clinical Features
General Malaise
Hypertension
Proteinuria
Hyperkalemia
Mineral and Bone Disorders
Neuropathy
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2 mins
Chronic Kidney Disease Interventions
Interventions
Daily Weights
Strict I/O
Renal Diet
Strict Medication Regimen
Erythropoietin
Manage Hyperkalemia
Manage CKD-MBD
Dialysis
Kidney Transplant
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2 mins
Chronic Kidney Disease Late Symptoms Assessment
Metabolic Acidosis
Severe Uremia
Arrhythmias
Edema
CNS Depression
Anemia
Oliguria
Pruritus
Considerations
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
GFR < 15mL/min
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2 mins
Dialysis
Hemodialysis
Rapid Shifts of Fluid and Electrolytes
Disequilibrium Syndrome
Hypotension
NO BP IN ARM with Shunt or Fistula
Assess for Thrill and Bruit
Peritoneal Dialysis
Slow Process
Peritonitis
Loss of Protein
Hyperglycemia
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3 mins
Glomerulonephritis Assessment
Mechanism
Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Hypertension
Hematuria
Proteinuria
Oliguria
Generalized Edema
Increased BUN and CR
Flank Pain
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2 mins
Nephrotic Syndrome
Occurs 2-3 weeks after a Strep infection
Hypoalbuminemia
Generalized Edema
I and Os with Daily Weights
Reduce Sodium and Fluids during periods of massive edema
Massive Proteinuria
Monitor serum protein levels
Monitor urine specific gravity
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2 mins
Pyelonephritis Assessment
Cause/Mechanism
Ascending Urethral Bacteria
Assessment
Dysuria
Fever
Fatigue
Flank Pain
Costovertebral Tenderness
Nausea and Vomiting
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1 min
Pyelonephritis Interventions
Urinalysis
NSAIDs
Antibiotics
Increase Fluid Intake
Avoid Catheterization
Consideration
Urosepsis
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1 min
Erythropoietin
Mechanism
Stimulates RBC Production
Indications
Chronic Renal Failure
Anemia
Side Effects
Increased Risk of Thrombosis
Pelvic and Limb Pain
Hypertension
Considerations
Do Not Shake
Monitor Hemoglobin (Hgb) Weekly
May Accelerate Tumor Progression
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2 mins

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