Haana Shared "Foundations (Part I)" - 61 Picmonics

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Foundations (Part I)

Myasthenia Gravis
Mechanism
Antibodies to Acetylcholine Receptor
Symptoms
Ptosis
Diplopia
Weakness with Muscle Use
Respiratory Death
Thymus Associated
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Plasmapheresis
Thymectomy
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1 min
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)
Both B and T Cell Deficiency
Recurrent Viral, Bacterial, Fungal, Protozoal Infections
Defective Interleukin (IL) 2 Receptor
X-Linked
Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
Failure to Synthesize MHC II Antigens
Treat with Bone Marrow Transplant
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2 mins
Attributable Risk (AR)
Use
Proportion Exposure Increases Disease
Formula
Incidence of Diseased (Sick)
Equals =
Exposed Group
a / (a + b)
Minus -
Unexposed Group
c / (c + d)
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1 min
Odds Ratio (OR)
Use
Case Control Studies
Measures Association Between an Exposure and an Outcome
Formula
Odds of Exposure in Diseased (Sick) Group
a / c
Divided /
Odds of Exposure in Healthy Group
b / d
Interpretation
=1 Exposure does not affect odds
> 1 Exposure increases disease
< 1 Exposure decreases disease
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2 mins
Specificity
Characteristics
Rules In
Confirmatory Test
Formula
TN / (TN + FP)
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1 min
Sensitivity
Characteristics
Rules Out
Screening Test
Formula
TP / (FN+TP)
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2 mins
Cell-mediated Adaptive Immune Response
Characteristics
Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Present Antigens
T Cell Develops Antigen Specificity
Regulatory T Cells Suppress Response
Memory T Cells Cause Faster Secondary Response
Cytotoxic T Cells Lyse Infected Cells
Infected Cells Present Antigen On Surface
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2 mins
Innate Immunity Cellular Response
Characteristics
Natural Killer Lymphocytes Attack Abnormal Cells
Neutrophils in Blood
Infected Cells Release Interferon
Complement Proteins Lyse Pathogens/Infected Cells
Dendritic Cells in Tissue
Macrophages in Tissue
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2 mins
Thymic Aplasia (DiGeorge Syndrome)
Pathophysiology
DiGeorge Syndrome
22q11 Deletion
Failure to Develop Third and Fourth Pharyngeal Pouches
Signs and Symptoms
Undeveloped Thymus
T Cell Deficiency
Recurrent Viral and Fungal Infections
Undeveloped Parathyroids
Hypocalcemia
Tetany
Aortic Defects
Congenital Heart Defects
Diagnosis
Absent Thymic Shadow on CXR
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2 mins
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Age 30 to 90 Years
BCR-ABL
9;22 Translocation
Philadelphia Chromosome
Tyrosine Kinase
Low Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK-P)
Splenomegaly
Blast Crisis can Accelerate and Transform to AML or ALL
Imatinib (Gleevec)
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2 mins
Burkitt's Lymphoma
Adolescents or young adults
C-myc gene moves next to heavy chain Ig gene
T 8;14
Starry sky appearance
Sheets of lymphocytes with interspersed macrophages
Jaw lesion in endemic (African) form
Pelvis or abdomen in non endemic form (American form)
Associated with EBV
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2 mins
Angelman's Syndrome
Mechanism
Paternal Imprinting
Deletion of Chromosome 15q (Maternal Deletion)
Signs And Symptoms
Happy Puppet Syndrome
Inappropriate Laughter
Ataxia
Severe Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizure
Abnormal EEG
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2 mins
Prader-Willi Syndrome
Mechanism
Maternal Imprinting
Deletion of Chromosome 15q (Paternal Deletion)
Signs And Symptoms
Hyperphagia
Truncal Obesity
Hypogonadism
Undescended Testicles (Cryptorchidism)
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Neonatal Hypotonia (Floppy Baby)
Almond Shaped Eyes
Narrow Bifrontal Diameter
Thin Upper Lip
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3 mins
Humoral Adaptive Immunity
Characteristics
B Cell Binds Free Floating Antigen
B Cell Presents Antigen to Helper T Cell
Helper T Cells Help B Cells Develop Antigen Specificity
Plasma B Cells Secrete Antibodies
Memory B Cells Cause Faster Secondary Response
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2 mins
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Assessment
Assessment
RNA Retrovirus
CD4+ Helper T Cells
Primary Infection
Flu-like Symptoms
Lymphadenopathy
Symptomatic Stage
Fatigue
Diarrhea
Unexplained Weight Loss
White Spots on Tongue
Persistent Fever
Night Sweats
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2 mins
Inflammatory Response
Pathogens Infect Tissue
Mast Cells Release Histamine
Histamine Dilates and Increases Capillary Permeability
Macrophages Engulf Pathogens
Macrophage Signals Cells With Cytokines
Responding Neutrophils Cross Capillary Wall
B And T Lymphocytes Arrive At Injury Site
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2 mins
TNF-Alpha Inhibitors Overview
Mechanism
Downregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines
Decreased lymphocyte activation and migration
Granuloma breakdown
Treats
Crohn's Disease
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
Psoriasis
Ankylosing spondylitis
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1 min
Influenza Virus
Characteristics
RNA Virus
Orthomyxovirus
Enveloped
Negative Sense
8 Segments
Helical
Hemagglutinin for Viral Entry
Neuraminidase for Virion Release
Genetic Shift
Reassortment of genome to cause major change
Genetic Drift
Minor Antigenic Mutations
Considerations
Reye Syndrome with Aspirin Use
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
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3 mins
Zinc Deficiency
Mechanism
Used in Over 100 Enzymes
Zinc Finger Formation
Signs and Symptoms
Delayed Wound Healing
Hypogonadism
Decreased Adult Hair
Dysgeusia
Anosmia
Perioral Rash
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica
Increased Risk in Patients with Cirrhosis
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2 mins
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Pathophysiology
5-10 Days After Heparin Exposure
Heparin-Platelet Factor 4 Complex
Autoantibodies Form Against Complex
Heparin-Platelet Factor 4-Antibody Complex Binds Platelets
Platelet Aggregation
Procoagulant Release
Symptoms
Thrombocytopenia
Diagnosis
Serotonin Release Assay (SRA)
Treatment
Stop Heparin, Start Direct Thrombin Inhibitor
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2 mins

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