Janani Shared "Z Cardio" - 41 Picmonics

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Z Cardio

Heart embryology
Truncus Arteriosus -> ascending aorta & pulmonary trunk
Bulbus cordis -> smooth parts (outflow tract) of L & R ventricles
Endocardial cushion -> atrial septum, membranous interventricular septum, AV and semilunar valves
Primitive atrium -> trabeculated L & R atria
Primitive ventricle -> trabeculated part of L and R ventricles
Primitive pulmonary vein -> smooth part of L atrium
Left horn of sinus venosus -> coronary sinus
Right horn of sinus venosus -> smooth part of R atrium (sinus venarum)
R common cardinal vein and R anterior cardinal vein -> superior vena cava
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Congenital Long QT Syndrome
PATHOGENESIS
Inherited Disorder of Myocardial Repolarization
Potassium (K+) Channel Mutations
SYMPTOMS
Prolonged QT Interval
Torsades de Pointes
Increased Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) 
TYPES OF SYNDROMES
Romano-Ward Syndrome
Autosomal Dominant
Pure Cardiac Phenotype (No Deafness)
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome
Autosomal Recessive
Sensorineural Deafness
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4 mins
Brugada
Autosomal Dominant
Asian males
ECG: pseudo-right bundle branch block and ST elevations in V1-V3
increase risk of ventricular tacchyarrhythmias
sudden cardiac death
prevent sudden cardiac death with implantable cardioverter-defribillator
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Temporal Arteritis
Giant Cell Arteritis
Granulomatous
Old females
Polymyalgia rheumatica
Unilateral headache
Jaw claudication
Blindness
Increased ESR
Normal serum creatine kinase
Steroids
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2 mins
Takayasu's Arteritis
Pathophysiology
Granulomatous Thickening of Aortic Arch
Pulseless Disease
Asian Females
Signs and Symptoms
Fever
Myalgia
Night Sweats
Arthritis
Ocular Disturbances
Diagnosis
Increased ESR
Different Blood Pressures in Arms
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2 mins
Polyarteritis Nodosa
Pathophysiology
Immune Complex-Mediated Transmural Vasculitis
Hepatitis B Association
Fibrinoid Necrosis
Signs and Symptoms
Black Stool (Melena)
Neurologic Dysfunction
Myalgia
Fever
Hypertension
Diagnosis
Vessels / Lesions in Different Stages
Renal Microaneurysms (On Arteriogram)
Spares Pulmonary Arteries (No Pulmonary Involvement)
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Cyclophosphamide
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2 mins
Kawasaki Disease
Pathophysiology
Prevalent in Asian Children
Necrotizing Vasculitis
Signs and Symptoms
Fever
Strawberry-Red Tongue and Mucosa
Lymphadenopathy
Desquamative Skin Rash
Erythema and Edema of the Hands and Feet
Conjunctivitis
Coronary Aneurysm
Treatment
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Aspirin
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2 mins
Buerger's Disease
Pathophysiology
Thromboangiitis Obliterans
Segmental Inflammation
Strong Association with Smoking
Signs and Symptoms
Superficial Nodular Phlebitis
Raynaud's Phenomenon
Autoamputation
Treatment
Smoking Cessation
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2 mins
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (Wegeners) Characteristics
Pathophysiology
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis
Vasculitis
Necrotizing
C ANCA
Lungs And Upper Airway
Crescentic Glomerulonephritis
Treatment
Cyclophosphamide
Corticosteroids
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1 min
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Wegeners) Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Lung Involvement
Cough
Hemoptysis
Chronic Sinusitis
Saddle Nose
Perforation of Nasal Septum
Otitis Media
Glomerulonephritis
Hematuria
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3 mins
Microscopic Polyangiitis
Pathophysiology
Necrotizing Small Vessel Vasculitis
Signs and Symptoms
Lungs, Kidneys, and Skin Commonly Affected
Palpable purpura
Rapidly Progressive Cresentic Glomerulonephritis
Diagnosis
Lesions are Same Age
Non-granulomatous
Minimal Nasopharyngeal Involvement
P-ANCA
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Cyclophosphamide
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2 mins
Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome)
Pathophysiology
Granulomatous Vasculitis
Signs and Symptoms
Sinusitis
Skin Lesions
Peripheral Neuropathy
Asthma
GI Disease
Heart Disease
Kidney Failure
Diagnosis
Eosinophilia
p-ANCA
Treatment
Corticosteroids
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3 mins
Henoch-Schonlein Purpura
Most Common Childhood Vasculitis
Follows Pharyngeal or Respiratory Infection
Palpable Purpura on Legs and Buttocks
Arthralgia
Intestinal Hemorrhage
Black Stool (Melena)
Associated with IgA Nephropathy
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2 mins
Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (Osler Weber Rendu Syndrome)
Mucosal Telangiectasias (Arteriovenous Malformations)
Autosomal Dominant
Recurrent epistaxis
GI Bleed
Hematuria
Cutaneous Discolorations
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Rett's Syndrome
Affects girls exclusively
Developmental regression
Seizures
Growth failure
MECP2 gene on X chromosome
Characteristic hand movements
Ataxia
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Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Chronic Alcohol Abuse
Doxorubicin Toxicity
Cocaine Use
Wet Beriberi
Hemochromatosis
Coxsackie B
Chagas Disease
Peripartum
S3
Eccentric Hypertrophy
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2 mins
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy (Broken Heart Syndrome)
Extreme Stress
Increased Catecholamines
Age 58-75
90% are Women
Mimic MI
Apical Ballooning of LV
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Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mechanisms
Pathophysiology
2/3 Autosomal-Dominant
1/3 Sporadic Type
Mutation in Gene for Sarcomere Protein
Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein C
Asymmetric Septal Hypertrophy
Outflow Tract Obstruction
Diastolic Dysfunction
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2 mins
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Signs, Symptoms and Treatment
Signs and Symptoms
Sudden Death Of Young Athlete
Heart Failure
Angina
Arrhythmias
Syncope
Harsh Systolic Ejection Murmur
S4 Heart Sound
Treatment
Beta Blocker
Non-dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker
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2 mins
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Sarcoidosis
Amyloidosis
Post-radiation Fibrosis
Endocardial Fibroelastosis
Löffler's or Loeffler's Syndrome with Eosinophilia
Hemochromatosis
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2 mins

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