Chiamaka Shared "CM RENAL 1" - 10 Picmonics

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CM RENAL 1

Medullary Spongy Kidney Disease
Occurs in adults
Cystic Fibrosis Mechanisms
Renal Calculi
Hematuria
Infections
Collecting Duct
Gross Look
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Nephrolithiasis
Crystals types
Uric acid crystal (Microscopic appearance)= Yellow or red brown, diamond or rhombus
Cystine crystal (Microscopic appearance)= Flat, Yellow Hexagonal
Oxalate kidney stones (Microscopic appearance) = Octahedron (square w/ an X in the center)
Calcium pyrophosphate crystals (Microscopic appearance) = Elongated, wedge-shaped > forms rosettes
Struvite Crystals aka Magnesium ammonium phosphate crystal (Microscopic appearance) = Rectangular prism (Coffin Lids)
OR Calcium pyrophosphate (in Psudogout) = Rhomboid-shaped crystals
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Casts in Urine (Differential Diagnosis)
Characteristics
RBC Casts
Glomerular Disease
WBC Casts
Acute Interstitial Nephritis
Acute Pyelonephritis
Fatty Casts
Maltese Cross Sign
Nephrotic Syndrome
Granular Muddy Brown Casts
Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN)
Waxy Casts
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) (Chronic Renal Failure)
Hyaline Casts
Non-Specific
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2 mins
Indications for Urgent Dialysis (AEIOU)
Signs and Symptoms
AEIOU Mnemonic
Acidosis
pH < 7.1
Electrolyte Imbalances
Symptomatic Hyperkalemia
> 6.5 mEq/L
Ingestion
Overload (Volume)
Uremia
Encephalitis
Pericarditis
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2 mins
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Cause
PKD1 Mutation
Symptoms
Bilateral Enlarged Cystic Kidneys
Flank Pain
Hematuria
Hypertension
Associated With
Berry Aneurysms
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
Hepatic Cyst
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Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (PCK)
Numerous Cysts in Medulla and Cortex
bilateral enlargement of kidneys
flank pain, HTN and hematuria
PKD1 on chromosome 16
PKD2 on chromosome 4
Associated with berry aneurism
Associated w/ Mitral Valve Prolapse + Berry Aneurisms
ACE Inhibitors
angiotensin 2 receptor blockers
Autosomal Dominant
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Tuberous Sclerosis
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Hamartomas in CNS and Skin
Phakoma
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation)
Seizures
Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma
Adenoma Sebaceum
Shagreen Patch
Ash-leaf Spots
Renal Angiomyolipoma
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma
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2 mins
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Pathophysiology
Chromosome 3
Presentation
Hemangioblastomas
Medulla, Retina, Cerebellum
Cysts
Kidney, Liver, Pancreas
Develop Bilateral Renal Carcinomas
Pheochromocytomas
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2 mins
Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease
Autosomal Dominant
Renal Fibrosis and Failure
Cysts within Medullary Collecting Ducts Only
Small Kidneys
Calcium Stones
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Berger's Disease (IgA Nephropathy)
Nephritic
IgA Nephropathy
Immune Complex Deposit in Mesangium
Increased Synthesis of IgA
Most Common Cause of Nephritic Syndrome
Overlapping Features with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
Presents with Pharyngitis, URI or Acute Gastroenteritis
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1 min

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