Mary Shared "Unit 12 - Kidney and Urinary Function" - 30 Picmonics

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Unit 12 - Kidney and Urinary Function

Pyelogram
Indications
Visualizes Urinary Tract
Diagnose Urinary Disorders
Considerations
Bowel Prep (Enema)
IV Contrast Media
X-Ray (Radiopaque)
Increase Fluid Intake
Contraindications
Iodine Allergy
Decreased Renal Function
2 mins
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Lab Values
10-20 mg/dL
40 secs
Collecting Duct
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorption via Passive Transport
Vasopressin Causes Water reabsorption
Concentrates Filtrate
2 mins
Distal Tubule
Characteristics
Hormonally Regulated
Aldosterone Causes Na+ Reabsorption
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water follows Na+
Parathyroid Hormone Causes Ca2+ Reabsorption
Leads to Collecting Duct
1 min
Urinary Excretory Anatomy
Characteristics
Renal Medulla
Renal Cortex
Nephron
Bowman's Capsule
Glomerulus
Proximal Tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal Tubule
Collecting Duct
Ureter
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
2 mins
Proximal Tubule
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water Follows Na+
Most Of Glucose Reabsorbed
Most Of Amino Acids Reabsorbed
Bicarbonate Exchanged For H+
Drugs and Toxins Excreted
Filtrate Osmolarity Same As Plasma
Leads To Loop Of Henle
2 mins
Renal Corpuscle
Characteristics
Arterioles
Glomerulus
Capillaries
Fenestrations
Plasma Solutes and Other Small Molecules Become Ultrafiltrate
Bowman's Capsule Encapsulates Glomerulus
2 mins
High Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Atria Release Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Vasodilation
Antagonizes Aldosterone
Na+ and Water Excreted
1 min
Low Blood Pressure Response
Characteristics
Posterior Pituitary Releases Vasopressin
Vasoconstriction
Adrenal Cortex Releases Aldosterone
Increased Na+ and H2O Reabsorption
1 min
Therapeutic Diets
Common Therapeutic Diets
High Fiber
Low Residue (Fiber)
Low Sodium
Low Cholesterol
Diabetic
Renal
Dysphagia
Nursing Considerations
Diet Education
2 mins
Acute Glomerulonephritis Interventions
Rest
Restrict Salt and Fluid Intake
Restrict Protein
Antihypertensives
Diuretics
Antibiotics
2 mins
Chronic Glomerulonephritis Interventions
Corticosteroids
Antihypertensives
Erythropoietin
Cytotoxic Agents
Dialysis
Plasmapheresis
Transplant
2 mins
Chronic Kidney Disease Early Symptoms Assessment
GFR < 60mL/min
Accumulation of Waste Products
General Malaise
Hypertension
Proteinuria
Hyperkalemia
Mineral and Bone Disorders
Neuropathy
2 mins
Chronic Kidney Disease Interventions
Daily Weights
Strict I/O
Renal Diet
Strict Medication Regimen
Erythropoietin
Manage Hyperkalemia
Manage CKD-MBD
Dialysis
Kidney Transplant
2 mins
Chronic Kidney Disease Late Symptoms Assessment
Metabolic Acidosis
Severe Uremia
Arrhythmias
Edema
CNS Depression
Anemia
Oliguria
Pruritus
Considerations
End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
GFR < 15mL/min
2 mins
Dialysis
Hemodialysis
Rapid Shifts of Fluid and Electrolytes
Disequilibrium Syndrome
Hypotension
NO BP IN ARM with Shunt or Fistula
Assess for Thrill and Bruit
Peritoneal Dialysis
Slow Process
Peritonitis
Loss of Protein
Hyperglycemia
3 mins
Glomerulonephritis Assessment
Mechanism
Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Hypertension
Hematuria
Proteinuria
Oliguria
Generalized Edema
Increased BUN and CR
Flank Pain
2 mins
Cyclosporine (Sandimmune) Side Effects
Side Effects
Nephrotoxicity
Hepatotoxicity
Infection
Hypertension
Hirsutism
Tremor
Hyperkalemia
Hypomagnesemia
Gingival Hyperplasia
1 min
Prednisone (Glucocorticoids)
Mechanism
Glucocorticoid
Indications
Inflammatory Conditions
Organ Transplant Rejection
Side Effects
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Cushing's Syndrome
Osteoporosis
Immunosuppression
Hyperglycemia
Ulcers
Considerations
Adrenal Insufficiency
Taper Gradually
2 mins
Tacrolimus (Prograf) Overview
Mechanisms
Immunosuppressant
Inhibits Calcineurin, Decreasing IL-2
Indications
Transplant Rejection
Atopic Dermatitis
Considerations
Increased Lymphoma Risk
Avoid Grapefruit Juice
1 min

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