OnlineMedEd Shared "Normocytic Anemia" - 12 Picmonics

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Normocytic Anemia

Hereditary Spherocytosis Diagnosis & Treatment
Labs
Increased MCHC
Spherocytes
Normocytic Anemia
Diagnosis
Osmotic Fragility Test
Treatment
Splenectomy
Folic Acid
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1 min
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Defect in Pyruvate Kinase
Decreased ATP
Extravascular Hemolysis
Presentation / Symptoms
Hemolytic Anemia in a Newborn
Diagnosis
RBC Enzyme Assay
Echinocytes
Burr Cells
Small Uniform Projections
Normocytic Anemia
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2 mins
Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia Causes
Intrinsic Hemolytic
Hereditary Spherocytosis
RBC Enzyme Deficiency
Hemoglobin C Defect
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Sickle Cell Anemia
Extrinsic Hemolytic
Autoimmune
Microangiopathic
Mechanical Destruction
Prosthetic Cardiac Valves
Infection
Snake Venom
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2 mins
Normocytic Nonhemolytic Anemia Causes
MCV 80-100
Nonhemolytic
Anemia of Chronic Disease/Inflammation
Aplastic Anemia
Chronic Kidney Disease
Early Iron Deficiency
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1 min
Sickle Cell Anemia (Mechanism)
Intrinsic Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia
Point Mutation
Autosomal Recessive
African-American
Dehydration or Decreased O2
Newborns Asymptomatic
Heterozygote Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
Children
Pathophysiology
Preceded by Acute Diarrheal Illness
Endothelial Damage
Classic Triad of Symptoms
Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia (MAHA)
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Failure
Labs
Helmet cells
LDH
Treatment
Dialysis
Supportive
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Management)
Long Term Treatment
Hydroxyurea
Bone Marrow Transplant
Folate
Acute Treatment
Exchange Transfusion
Prophylaxis
Penicillin Prophylaxis
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1 min
G6PD Mechanism
Turns NADP+ to NADPH
NADPH Used by Glutathione Reductase
Detoxifies Free Radicals and Peroxides
X-linked Recessive
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2 mins
G6PD Deficiency
X-linked Recessive
Hemolytic Anemia
Inflammatory Response
Fava Beans
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Anti TB Drugs
Heinz Bodies
Bite Cells
Prevalent Among African Americans due to Increased Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Pathophysiology
Defective PIG-A Gene
Deficiency of DAF (Decay Accelerating Factor CD55)
Symptoms
Dark Urine in the Morning
Intravascular Hemolysis
Thrombosis
Diagnosis
Decreased CD55 and CD59
Treatment
RBC Transfusion
Eculizumab
Bone Marrow Transplant is Curative
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3 mins
Warm Agglutinin Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (W-AIHA)
Pathophysiology
Most Common Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
IgG Coats RBCs at Warm Temperatures
Fc Portion of IgG Recognized By Macrophages
Extravascular Hemolysis
Medications
Alpha Methyldopa
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Diagnosis
Positive Coombs Test
Treatment
Corticosteroids
Splenectomy
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Rituximab
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3 mins
Cold Agglutinin Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (C-AIHA)
Pathophysiology
IgM Binds to RBCs at Cold Temperatures (28-31C)
Intravascular Hemolysis
Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
Infectious Mononucleosis
Lymphomas and CLL
Symptoms
Acral Cyanosis with Cold Exposure
Blue Fingers and Toes
Diagnosis
Positive Coombs Test
Treatment
Avoid Cold
Rituximab
+/- Fludarabine
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3 mins

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