Liz Shared "Exam IV Patho II" - 80 Picmonics

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Exam IV Patho II

Transdermal Medication Administration
Application
Patch or Disc
Directly on Skin of Arms, Chest, Upper Back
Benefits
Avoids First Pass Metabolism
Sustained Administration of Medication
Nursing Considerations
Clean Skin After Removal
Rotate Sites of Patches
Apply to Dry Skin
Avoid Shaved Skin
Avoid Heat
Nitro Effects Lost After 24 Hours
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2 mins
Digoxin Toxicity Treatment
Activated Charcoal
Slowly Normalize K+
Digibind (Anti-Digoxin Fab)
Magnesium Sulfate
Lidocaine
Cardiac Pacing
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2 mins
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Mechanism of Action
Increases Inotropy
Indications
Heart Failure
Atrial Fibrillation
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Fatigue
Contraindications
Heart Block
Nursing Considerations
Heart Rate Below 60
Hypokalemia
Monitor for Toxicity and Visual Changes
Digibind
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2 mins
Acute Digoxin Toxicity
Clinical Symptoms
Hyperkalemia
Cholinergic (Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea)
Blurry Yellow Green Vision with Halo of Light
Arrhythmia
Bradycardia
EKG Changes
Prolonged PR interval
Decreased QT
Scooping on EKG
T Wave Inversion
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2 mins
Heart Failure Interventions
Diagnostic Tests
Echocardiogram
Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring
Improve Gas Exchange
High Fowler's Position
Oxygen
Advanced Airway
Drugs and Devices
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
ACE Inhibitors
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Pacemaker
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2 mins
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil and Diltiazem)
Mechanism of Action
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Angina Pectoris
Arrhythmias
Essential Hypertension
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Constipation
Peripheral Edema
Gingival Hyperplasia
Nursing Consideration
Medication Education
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2 mins
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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1 min
Hypertension Medications
Diuretics
Beta Blockers
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Calcium Channel Blockers
ACE Inhibitors
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1 min
Beta Blockers
"-olol" suffix
Mechanism
Decreases Heart Rate and Contractility
Decreases Peripheral Vascular Resistance
Decreases Renin Release
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Angina Pectoris
Contraindications
Asthma and Heart Block Patients
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
Masking Signs of Hypoglycemia
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Nitroglycerin
Mechanism of Action
Decreases Preload
Indications
Angina
Up to 3 doses q 5 mins
Side Effects
Headache
Hypotension
Contraindications
Viagra (Sildenafil)
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure
Protect From Light
Use Glass Bottle and Special Tubing
Gloves for Applying Topically
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2 mins
Nitroprusside
Mechanism of Action
Direct Release of NO
Increase cGMP
Short Half-Life
Indications
Malignant Hypertension
Side Effect
Cyanide Toxicity
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1 min
Sodium Nitroprusside (Nitropress)
Mechanism
Venous and Arterial Dilation
Indications
Hypertensive Crisis
Side Effects
Cyanide Toxicity
Thiocyanate Toxicity
Hypotension
Considerations
Short Term Administration
Light Sensitive, Use Container
Continuous BP Monitoring
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2 mins
Varicose Veins Assessment
Cause
Increased Venous Pressure
Incompetent Valves
Assessment
Telangiectasias
Small Reticular Veins
Dilated and Tortuous Veins
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1 min
Varicose Veins Interventions
Laser Therapy
Sclerotherapy
Removal of Saphenous Vein
Considerations
Avoid Prolonged Standing
Elastic Compression Stockings
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2 mins
Supine Hypotension (Vena Cava Syndrome)
Mechanism
Compression of the Vena Cava and Descending Aorta
Signs and Symptoms
Hypotension
Dizziness
Tachycardia
Decreased Renal Perfusion
Decreased Uteroplacental Perfusion
Intervention
Side-lying Position
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2 mins
Hypertension Assessment
Mechanism
Essential Hypertension
Secondary Hypertension
Assessment
Headache
Vision Changes
Nosebleed (Epistaxis)
Chest Pain
Syncope (Fainting)
Diagnosis
Average 2 Sets, 2 Minutes Apart
After 2 or More Visits
Nursing Considerations
Take BP Both Arms
Common in African Americans
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2 mins
Unstable Angina
Assessment
Chest Pain with Rest or Exertion
Limits ADLs
> 15 Minutes
Less Likely Relieved by Nitroglycerin
ST Depression
Fatigue
Considerations
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Treatment
Emergency Treatment
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2 mins
Stable Angina
Assessment
Chest Pain with Exertion
Relieved within 15 Minutes
ST Depression
Interventions
Nitroglycerin
Up to 3 Doses q 5 Minutes
Rest
Antiplatelet Medication
CABG
Angioplasty
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2 mins
Coronary Arteries
Aortic Root
Right Coronary Artery (RCA)
Right (Acute) Marginal Artery
Posterior Descending Artery (PDA)
Left Coronary Artery (LCA)
Left Anterior Descending (LAD) Artery
Circumflex Artery
Left Marginal Artery
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1 min
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Indications
ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)
Cardiovascular Disease (CAD)
Uncontrolled Angina
Considerations
Internal Mammary Artery
Saphenous (Leg) Vein
Transient Limb Edema
Closely Monitor Patients
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Prophylaxis
Incentive Spirometer
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2 mins

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