Autumnburnes94 Shared "Urinary GU" - 28 Picmonics

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Urinary GU

Nephritic Syndrome
Inflammatory
Hematuria
RBC casts
Increased Nitrogen in blood
Oliguria
Hypertension
Proteinuria < 3.5 grams per day
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2 mins
Berger's Disease (IgA Nephropathy)
Nephritic
IgA Nephropathy
Immune Complex Deposit in Mesangium
Increased Synthesis of IgA
Most Common Cause of Nephritic Syndrome
Overlapping Features with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
Presents with Pharyngitis, URI or Acute Gastroenteritis
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1 min
Alport Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Nephritic
X-linked
Mutation in Type IV Collagen
Diagnosis
Split Basement Membrane
Basket Weave Appearance
Signs and Symptoms
Ocular Disorders
Deafness
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2 mins
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
Nephritic
Crescent Shape
Crescents Consist of Fibrin and C3b
With Macrophages
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Wegener's Granulomatosis
Microscopic Polyangiitis
Poor Prognosis
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2 mins
Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies
Glomerulonephritis
Goodpasture's Disease
Linear immunofluorescence
Hemoptysis
Hematuria
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1 min
Post Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis
Pathophysiology
Nephritic
Children
Signs and Symptoms
Edema
Cola Colored Urine
Follows Group A Streptococcal pharyngitis or Skin Infection
Diagnosis
Neutrophils
Immunofluorescence (IF) Granular
Lumpy Bumpy Appearance on Immunofluorescence (IF)
Subepithelial Immune Complex Humps
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2 mins
Nephrotic Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Massive Proteinuria > 3.5g per Day
Edema
Increased risk of infection
Thromboembolism
Hyperlipidemia
Fatty casts
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1 min
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Most Common Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in Hispanics and African Americans
Associated with Sickle Cell Disease and HIV
Associated Interferon Therapy and Heroin Abuse
Histopathology
LM Segmental Sclerosis and Hyalinosis
EM Focal Damage of Visceral Epithelial Cells
IF Negative
Signs & Symptoms
Microscopic Hematuria
Nonselective Proteinuria
Considerations
Poor Prognosis
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2 mins
Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Characteristics
Nephrotic
Diagnosis
LM Thickening of Capillary and Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM)
EM Spike and Dome Appearance with Subepithelial Deposits
IF Granular
Primary
Phospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies
Secondary
NSAIDS
Gold
Solid Tumors
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)
Lupus
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3 mins
Amyloidosis
Primary
Multiple Myeloma
Secondary
Tuberculosis (TB)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Congo Red Stain
Apple Green Birefringence
Nephrotic
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2 mins
Diabetic Glomerulonephropathy
Pathophysiology
Nonenzymatic Glycosylation of Glomerular Basement Membrane
Nonenzymatic Glycosylation of Arterioles
Hyperfiltration
Increased GFR
Histological Findings
Hyaline Arteriolosclerosis
Mesangial Expansion
Type IV Collagen Deposition
Kimmelstiel Wilson Lesions
Presentation
Nephrotic
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2 mins
Minimal Change Disease
Pathophysiology
Nephrotic
Most Common in Children
May be Triggered by Recent Infection or Immune Stimulus
Diagnosis
On Electron Microscopy (EM) See Foot Process (Podocyte) Effacement
On Light Microscopy (LM) See Normal Glomeruli
Loss of Negative Charge
Selective Loss of Albumin
Treatment
Responds to Corticosteroids
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2 mins
Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
Nephritic-Nephrotic Syndrome
Type I
Subendothelial Immune Complexes
Hepatitis C Virus
Granular IF
Tram Tracks Caused by Splitting of the GBM
Ingrowth of Mesangium
Type II
Dense Deposit Disease
C3 Nephritic Factor
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2 mins
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Pathophysiology
Bleeding state
Activation of clotting factors
Deficiency of clotting factors
Causes
Sepsis
Trauma
Obstetric complications
Acute Pancreatitis
Malignancy
Nephrotic Syndrome
Transfusion
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2 mins
Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis
Pathophysiology
Increased Anion Gap
MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Propylene Glycol
Isoniazid or Iron
Lactic Acid
Ethylene Glycol
Salicylates
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1 min
Normal Gap Metabolic Acidosis
HARD-ASS
Hyperalimentation
Addison's Disease
Renal Tubular Acidosis
Diarrhea
Acetazolamide
Spironolactone
Saline Infusion
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2 mins
Metabolic Alkalosis
Diuretic use
Vomiting
Antacid
Hyperaldosteronism
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26 secs
Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation
High Altitude
Aspirin
Restrictive Lung Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy
Progesterone
Rib Fracture
Anxiety
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1 min
Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoventilation
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Barbiturates Depress Central Respiratory Center of Brain
Opioids Depress Central Respiratory Center of the Brain
Airway Obstruction
Respiratory Muscle Weakness/Paralysis
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3 mins
ACE Inhibitor Toxicity
CAPTOPRIL Mnemonic
Cough
Angioedema
Potassium Changes (Hyperkalemia)
Taste Change
Hypotension
Pregnancy Changes
Rash
Increased Renin
Lower Angiotensin II
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2 mins

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