Tyler Shared "CARE - week 5 - renal" - 19 Picmonics

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CARE - week 5 - renal

Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis
Pathophysiology
Increased Anion Gap
MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Propylene Glycol
Isoniazid or Iron
Lactic Acid
Ethylene Glycol
Salicylates
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1 min
Normal Gap Metabolic Acidosis
HARD-ASS
Hyperalimentation
Addison's Disease
Renal Tubular Acidosis
Diarrhea
Acetazolamide
Spironolactone
Saline Infusion
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2 mins
Metabolic Alkalosis
Diuretic use
Vomiting
Antacid
Hyperaldosteronism
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26 secs
Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoventilation
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Barbiturates Depress Central Respiratory Center of Brain
Opioids Depress Central Respiratory Center of the Brain
Airway Obstruction
Respiratory Muscle Weakness/Paralysis
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3 mins
Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation
High Altitude
Aspirin
Restrictive Lung Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy
Progesterone
Rib Fracture
Anxiety
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1 min
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Indications
Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Glaucoma
Drug Overdose
Mechanism of Action
Osmotic diuretic
Increased Urine Flow
Side Effects
Dehydration
Contraindications
Anuria
CHF
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2 mins
Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick Ascending Limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl- Symporter
Sulfa Drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Gout
Ototoxicity
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
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4 mins
Thiazide Diuretics
Early Distal Tubule
Inhibits NaCl Reabsorption
Sulfa Drug
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hypercalcemia
Hyperuricemia
Hyponatremia
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
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2 mins
K+ Sparing Diuretics
Indications
CHF and Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Hyperaldosteronism
Mechanism of Action
Collecting Tubule
Spironolactone
Competitive Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist
Amiloride and Triamterene
Block Na+ Channels
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
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2 mins
Nephrotic Syndrome
Signs and Symptoms
Massive Proteinuria > 3.5g per Day
Edema
Increased risk of infection
Thromboembolism
Hyperlipidemia
Fatty casts
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1 min
Blood Acid-Base Control
Characteristics
In a State of Acidemia
Medullary Chemoreceptors Control Ventilation Rate
Expulsion of CO2 through Lungs Increases pH
Bicarbonate Reabsorption from the Kidney Increases pH
Kidney Excretion of H+ Increases pH
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2 mins
Proximal Tubule
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water Follows Na+
Most Of Glucose Reabsorbed
Most Of Amino Acids Reabsorbed
Bicarbonate Exchanged For H+
Drugs and Toxins Excreted
Filtrate Osmolarity Same As Plasma
Leads To Loop Of Henle
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2 mins
Loop of Henle
Characteristics
Descending Limb
Water Follows Na+
Medullary Hypertonicity
Increased Water Reabsorption
Vasa Recta
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Ascending Limb
Reabsorbs Na+, K+, Cl-
Decreased Concentration of Filtrate
Impermeable to Water
Distal Tubule
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2 mins
Distal Tubule
Characteristics
Hormonally Regulated
Aldosterone Causes Na+ Reabsorption
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water follows Na+
Parathyroid Hormone Causes Ca2+ Reabsorption
Leads to Collecting Duct
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1 min
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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1 min
Hyperkalemia
Assessment
> 5.0 mEq/L K+
Abdominal Cramps
Muscle Weakness
Diarrhea
Arrhythmia
Tall, Peaked T Waves
Interventions
IV Calcium
Infusion of Glucose and Insulin
Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
Kayexalate
Dialysis
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Hypokalemia
Assessment
< 3.5 mEq/L
Muscle Weakness
Arrhythmia
U Wave
Ileus
Hyporeflexia
Interventions
IV K+ Infusion at 5-10 mEq/hr
Give Orally with Food
Nursing Considerations
Monitor Respiratory Status
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3 mins
Normal Electrolyte Lab Values
Potassium (K+)
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Calcium (Ca2+)
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
Phosphate (PO43–)
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
Magnesium (Mg2+)
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
Sodium (Na+)
135 to 145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl)
95 to 105 mEq/L
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2 mins
Acetazolamide
Indications
Glaucoma
Altitude Sickness
Pseudotumor Cerebri
CHF
Metabolic Alkalosis
Mechanism of Action
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor
Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Diuresis
Side Effects
Metabolic Acidosis
Paresthesias
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1 min

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