Eric Shared "Neuro" - 189 Picmonics

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Neuro

CN IX
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Sensory
Taste from Posterior 1/3 of Tongue
Monitoring Carotid Body and Sinus
Motor
Stylopharyngeus
Swallowing
Salivation
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1 min
CN X
Vagus Nerve
Sensory
Aortic Arch Chemoreceptors and Baroreceptors
Taste from Epiglottic Region
Motor
Swallowing
Palate Elevation
Talking
Coughing
Midline Uvula
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1 min
Craniopharyngioma
Hypopituitary
Remnants of Rathke's pouch
Tooth-enamel like calcification
Cholesterol crystals
Yellow viscous fluid
Headache
Bitemporal hemianopsia
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1 min
Hemangioblastoma
Most often cerebellar
Associated with Von Hippel-Lindau
Retinal Angiomas
Can produce EPO
Secondary polycythemia
Foamy cells
High vascularity
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58 secs
Von Hippel-Lindau Disease
Pathophysiology
Chromosome 3
Presentation
Hemangioblastomas
Medulla, Retina, Cerebellum
Cysts
Kidney, Liver, Pancreas
Develop Bilateral Renal Carcinomas
Pheochromocytomas
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2 mins
Ependymoma
Occur in Children
Fourth Ventricle
Hydrocephalus
Perivascular Pseudorosettes
Rod Shaped Blepharoplasts
Cauda Equina in Adults
Poor Prognosis
Neurofibromatosis Type II
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2 mins
Oligodendroglioma
Slow growing tumor
Frontal lobe
Chicken Wire Pattern
Fried egg appearance
Calcifications
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31 secs
Medulloblastoma
Pathophysiology
Occur in children
Cerebellum
Fourth ventricle
Diagnosis
Small blue cells
Lots of mitotic figures
Homer Wright Rosettes
Perivascular pseudorosettes
Signs and Symptoms
Hydrocephalus
Ataxia
Wide-based Gait
Treatment
Radiosensitive
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3 mins
Glioblastoma Multiforme
Most Common Primary Brain Tumor
Grade 4 Astrocytoma
Can Cross Corpus Callosum
Butterfly Glioma
Pseudo-palisading Tumor Cells
Areas of Necrosis and Hemorrhage
Stain Astrocytes for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
Grave Prognosis
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2 mins
Pilocytic Astrocytoma
Occurs Most Commonly in Kids
Posterior Fossa
Cerebellum
Well Circumscribed
GFAP
Rosenthal Fibers
Eosinophilic Corkscrew Fibers
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1 min
Meningioma
Epidemiology
Most Common Adult Primary Brain Tumor
pathology
Benign
Originate from Arachnoid Villi
Dural Attachment
Parasagittal
Clinical Manifestations
Contralateral Leg Weakness
Seizures
Diagnosis
Psammoma Bodies
Calcifications
Increased Bone Density
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3 mins
Schwannoma
Characteristics
Acoustic Schwannoma
Cranial Nerve VIII
Cerebellopontine Angle
S100 Positive
Bilateral Schwannoma in Neurofibromatosis Type 2
Tinnitus
Cranial Nerve V
Affects Corneal Reflex
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2 mins
Prolactinoma
Pituitary Adenoma
Galactorrhea
Prolactin Inhibits Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
Impotence
Amenorrhea
Bitemporal Hemianopsia
Treat with Dopamine
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2 mins
Nerve Palsies - Klumpke's Palsy
Nerve
C8 to T1 Roots
Lower Trunk
Causes
Upward Arm Force during Delivery
Adult Trauma
Grabbing Tree Branch to Break a Fall
Muscle Affected
Intrinsic Hand Muscles
Presentation
Claw Hand
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1 min
Nerve Palsies - Winged Scapula
Nerve
Long Thoracic Nerve
Causes
Axillary Node Dissection in Mastectomy
Stab Wound
Muscle Affected
Serratus Anterior
Functional Deficit
Scapula Cannot Anchor to Thorax
Presentation
Inability to Raise Arm Above Head
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1 min
Nerve Palsies - Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Nerve
Compression of Brachial Plexus
Compression of Subclavian Vessels
Causes
Cervical Rib Abnormality
Trauma
Weight Lifters
Pancoast Tumor
Presentation
Edema
Claw Hand
Pain
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1 min
Nerve Palsies - Pope's Blessing
Nerve
Proximal Median Nerve
Causes
Supracondylar Fracture of Humerus
Functional Deficit
Loss of Flexion of Thumb, Pointer and Middle Finger
Presentation
Trouble Making a Fist
Hand Resembles Popes Blessing on Flexion
Complications
Atrophy of Thenar Eminence
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1 min
Nerve Palsies - Ulnar Claw
Nerve
Distal Ulnar Nerve
Causes
Fracture Hook of Hamate (distal injury)
Cyclists
Compression Guyon's Canal
Functional Deficit
Unable to Extend 4th and 5th Digits
Presentation
Hand Resembles Ulnar Claw on Extension
Complications
Atrophy of Hypothenar Eminence
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1 min
Nerve Palsies - Median Claw
Nerve
Distal Median Nerve
Causes
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Deficit
Unable to Extend Thumb, Pointer and Middle Finger
Presentation
Clawing of Digits 1-3
Tinels Sign
Phalens Sign
Complication
Atrophy of Thenar Eminence
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2 mins
Nerve Palsies - OK Gesture
Nerve
Proximal Ulnar Nerve
Causes
Fracture Medial Epicondyle of Humerus (proximal injury)
Deficit
Unable to Flex 4th and 5th Digits
Presentation
Trouble Making a Fist
Resembles OK gesture
Complication
Hypothenar Atrophy
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1 min

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