Lindsay Shared "PATHO Final Exam" - 128 Picmonics

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PATHO Final Exam

COPD Overview (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overview)
Causes
Inhaled Toxins
Smoking
AAT Deficiency
Assessment
Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Asthma
Considerations
Spirometry
Slow Progression
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Assessment
Clinical Findings
Chronic Productive Cough
> 3 Months for 2 Years
Increased Mucus Production
Dyspnea
Cyanosis
Wheezes
Complications
Right Side Heart Failure
Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Peripheral Edema
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2 mins
Chronic Bronchitis Interventions
Tripod Position
Humidified Oxygen
Pursed Lip Breathing
Increase Fluid Intake
ABGs
Early Detection of Exacerbation
Considerations
Lowest O2 Therapy
Assisted Ventilation
Increased Infection Risk
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2 mins
Emphysema
Mechanism
Hyperinflation and Loss of Elasticity
Assessment
Pursed Lip Breathing
Barrel Chest
Dyspnea on Exertion
Clubbing
Depression and Anxiety
Thin Appearance
Nursing Considerations
CO2 Retention
Low Concentration of O2
High Fowler's Position
High Calorie, High Protein Diet
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2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Assessment
Thickened Mucus
Recurrent Pulmonary Infections
Pulmonary Congestion
Pancreatic Insufficiency
Steatorrhea
Fat-Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies
Salty Taste to Skin
Meconium Ileus
Delayed Growth and Poor Weight Gain
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2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Interventions
Bronchodilators
N-Acetylcysteine (Mucolytics)
Inhaled Hypertonic Saline
Early Antibiotics
Dornase Alfa (Pulmozyme)
Postural Drainage with Percussion
Fat Soluble Vitamin Supplements
Pancreatic Enzymes with Every Meal
High Protein, High Calorie Diet
Added Dietary Salt
Glucose Monitoring
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2 mins
Cholesterol Lab Values
LDL (Low Density Cholesterol)
< 100 mg/dL
HDL (High Density Cholesterol)
> 40 mg/dL Males
> 50 mg/dL Females
Total Cholesterol
< 200 mg/dL
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1 min
Statins
Rhabdomyolysis
Hepatotoxicity
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Decrease LDL
Decrease Triglycerides
Increase HDL
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2 mins
Ezetimibe
Indications
Hyperlipidemia
Mechanism of Action
Cholesterol Absorption Blocker
Decreases LDL
Side Effects
Diarrhea
Increased LFT Values
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56 secs
Vitamin B3 - Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
Mechanism
Decreases Triglycerides
Decreases LDL
Increases HDL
Indications
Dyslipidemia
Pellagra
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
Dementia
Side Effects
Flushing
GI Distress
Hepatotoxicity
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2 mins
Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
Characteristics
-statin Suffix
Mechanism
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Indications
High Cholesterol
Side Effects
Hepatotoxicity
Rash
Rhabdomyolysis
Myopathy
Considerations
Monitor Liver Enzymes
Administer at Bedtime
Avoid Grapefruit
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2 mins
Stable Angina
Assessment
Chest Pain with Exertion
Relieved within 15 Minutes
ST Depression
Interventions
Nitroglycerin
Up to 3 Doses q 5 Minutes
Rest
Antiplatelet Medication
CABG
Angioplasty
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2 mins
Nitroglycerin
Mechanism of Action
Decreases Preload
Indications
Angina
Up to 3 doses q 5 mins
Side Effects
Headache
Hypotension
Contraindications
Viagra (Sildenafil)
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure
Protect From Light
Use Glass Bottle and Special Tubing
Gloves for Applying Topically
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2 mins
Cardiovascular Effects of Beta-Blockers
Cardiac Myocytes and Vasculature
Decrease cAMP
Decreases SA and AV Node Conduction Velocity
Lower Blood Pressure
Decrease O2 Consumption
Decreases Mortality Post-MI
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2 mins
Clopidogrel (Plavix)
Mechanism
ADP Receptor Antagonist
Prevent Platelet Aggregation
Indications
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)
Prevention of Thrombotic Events
Side Effects
Bleeding
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Pancytopenia
Abdominal Pain
Considerations
Withhold Before Surgery
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2 mins
Warfarin Antidotes
Antidotes
Vitamin K
Fresh Frozen Plasma
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58 secs
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil and Diltiazem)
Mechanism of Action
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Angina Pectoris
Arrhythmias
Essential Hypertension
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Constipation
Peripheral Edema
Gingival Hyperplasia
Nursing Consideration
Medication Education
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2 mins
Unstable Angina
Assessment
Chest Pain with Rest or Exertion
Limits ADLs
> 15 Minutes
Less Likely Relieved by Nitroglycerin
ST Depression
Fatigue
Considerations
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) Treatment
Emergency Treatment
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Assessment
Assessment
Substernal Chest Pain
Crushing or Dull Sensation
Arm, Jaw, and Neck
> 20 Minutes
Unrelieved by Nitro
Palpitations
Diaphoresis
Fear of Impending Doom
Nausea and Vomiting
Shortness of Breath
Considerations
Monitor for Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Diagnosis
Diagnosis
12 Lead ECG
ST Elevation
Q Wave
T Wave Inversion
Troponin T and I
CK-MB
Considerations
Early ECG
Cardiac Stress Test
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2 mins

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