Jonathan Shared "Pathoma - GI" - 17 Picmonics

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Pathoma - GI

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
Triad of Symptoms
Dysphagia
Esophageal Webs
Glossitis
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Association
Squamous Cell Cancer of Esophagus
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1 min
Zenker Diverticulum
Pathophysiology
False Diverticulum
Junction of Pharynx and Esophagus
Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictor
Symptoms
Dysphagia
Regurgitation of Undigested Food
Halitosis
Diagnosis
Barium Swallow
Treatment
Surgical Repair
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2 mins
Mallory-Weiss
Characteristics
Bleeding From Tears in Mucosa
Forceful Vomiting
Alcoholism
Eating Disorders (Bulimia)
Painful Hematemesis
Diagnosis
Endoscopy
Management
Observation
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2 mins
Achalasia
Pathophysiology
Failure to Relax Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Malignancies
Chagas Disease
Loss of Auerbach Plexus
Symptoms
Dysphagia to Solids & Liquids
Diagnosis
Barium Swallow
Bird's Beak Appearance
Manometry
Risk Factors
Increased Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma
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2 mins
Meckel's Diverticulum
Pathophysiology
True Diverticulum
Vitelline Duct
Yolk Stalk
Contain Ectopic Tissue
Pancreatic And Gastric Mucosa
Signs and Symptoms
Hemorrhage
Intussusceptions
Volvulus
Diagnosis
2 Feet From Ileocecal Valve
2 Inches Long
2% Population
First 2 Years Of Life
Pertechnetate T99
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2 mins
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Assessment
Pathophysiology
Relaxed Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Signs and Symptoms
Dyspepsia (Indigestion)
Belching
Nighttime Coughing
Dysphagia
Epigastric Pain
Regurgitation
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Globus
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2 mins
Barrett's Esophagus
Histological findings
Metaplasia in Lower Esophagus
Columnar Epithelium
Associated Pathologies
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Esophagitis
Esophageal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
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1 min
Celiac Disease Characteristics
Epidemiology
European Descent
HLA-DQ2
HLA-DQ8
Pathophysiology
Autoimmune-mediated Intolerance of Gliadin
Symptoms
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Weight Loss
Failure to Thrive
Decreased Bone Density
Steatorrhea
Anemia
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2 mins
Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Blunting of Intestinal Villi
Lymphocytes in Lamina Propria
Anti-gliadin Antibodies (IgA)
Anti-endomysial Antibodies (IgA)
Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibodies (IgA)
Treatment
Gluten-Free Diet
Corticosteroids
Dapsone
Complications
Intestinal Lymphoma
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2 mins
Whipple's Disease
Tropheryma Whipplei
Gram-Positive
Middle-aged, Caucasian men and Farmers
Malabsorption
Mesenteric Nodes
Arthralgias
Cardiac Symptoms
Neurologic Symptoms
PAS-positive Foamy Macrophages
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1 min
Ulcerative Colitis Characteristics
Autoimmune
Mucosal and Submucosal Only
Rectal Involvement
Stepwise Lesions
Friable Pseudopolyp
Crypt Abscess
Loss of Haustra
Lead Pipe Appearance
Bloody Diarrhea
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2 mins
Ulcerative Colitis Associations
Associations
Toxic Megacolon
Colorectal Carcinoma
Anterior Uveitis
Pyoderma Gangrenosum
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
P-ANCA
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1 min
Crohn's Disease Characteristics
Terminal Ileum and Colon
Rectal Sparing
Transmural Inflammation
Granulomas
Skip Lesions
Cobblestone Mucosa
Fissures
Fistulas
Perianal Disease
Creeping Fat
Lymphoid Aggregates
String Sign on Barium Swallow
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2 mins
Crohn's Symptoms and Associations
Diarrhea
Malabsorption
Bile-Wasting
Pigment Gallstones
Oxalate Kidney Stones
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Erythema Nodosum
Uveitis
Migratory Polyarthritis
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2 mins
Hirschsprung Disease
Failure of Neuronal Crest Cell Migration
Involves Rectum
Lack of Auerbach and Meissner Plexus
Chronic Constipation
Failure to Pass Meconium
Congenital Megacolon
Increased Risk with Down Syndrome
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2 mins
Lynch Syndrome (Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer)
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Defective DNA Mismatch Repair
80% Risk of Colon Cancer Development
Proximal (Right) Colon
Type II associated with Endometrial, Ovarian and Skin Cancers
3-2-1 Rule
3 Relatives with Colon Cancer
Occurs Across 2 Generations
1 Relative Diagnosed < 50 Years Old
Treatment
Frequent Screening
Colectomy
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3 mins
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
Mechanism and Characteristics
Symptomatic Age: 10-30 Years
LKB1/STK11 Gene Mutation
Autosomal Dominant
Signs and Symptoms
Benign GI Hamartomatous Polyps
Mucocutaneous Hyperpigmentation
Positive Family History
Increased Risk of Colorectal Carcinoma
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1 min

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