Brent Shared "PA Workbook EENT and Respiratory - 21" - 21 Picmonics

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PA Workbook EENT and Respiratory - 21

Closed-Angle Glaucoma
Primary
Lens causes pupillary obstruction
Aqueous humor builds behind iris
Iris bends forward, obstructing trabecular mesh
Secondary
Hypoxia Causes Neovascular Proliferation
Contraction and obstruction of trabecular mesh
Chronic disease (Crone)
Asymptomatic
Acute Disease
Eye pain and blindness
Rock-hard eye
Headache
Emergency
Epinephrine contraindicated
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2 mins
Open-Angle Glaucoma
Humor has access to trabecular meshwork
Presentation
Painless
African-American
Elderly
Positive family history
Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Most common form of Glaucoma
Unknown Mechanism
Secondary Open-Angle Glaucoma
Blocked trabecular meshwork (with Open-Angle)
WBCs
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
Retinal products
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2 mins
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Mechanism
Dry (nonexudative)
Wet (exudative)
Signs and Symptoms
Scotomas
Blurred, darkened vision
Loss of central vision
Distortion of vision
Considerations
Drug Therapy
Surgery
Low-vision assistive devices
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2 mins
Detached Retina
Assessment
Flashes of Light
Floaters
Curtain Like Shadow
Interventions
Eye Patch
Bed Rest
Surgical Emergency
Considerations
No Vigorous Activity
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2 mins
Otitis Media Interventions
Antipyretics
Analgesics
Antibiotics
Irrigation
Position on Affected Side
Myringotomy
Tympanostomy Tube
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2 mins
Otitis Media Assessment
Red or Bulging Tympanic Membrane
Ear Pain
Pulling at ear
Fever
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
More Common in Young Children
Eustachian Tube Narrower
Conductive Hearing Loss
Smoking Increases Risk
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2 mins
Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
Mechanism
Parainfluenza Virus
Assessment
3 Months to 3 Years
Nighttime
Barking Seal Cough
Inspiratory Stridor
Interventions
Cool Humidified Air
Dexamethasone
Racemic Epinephrine
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2 mins
Epiglottitis Assessment
Cause/Mechanism
Haemophilus Influenzae
Assessment
Drooling
Fever
Stridor
Restlessness
Dyspnea
Cough
Tripod Position
Considerations
Emergency Treatment
Do Not Examine Throat
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2 mins
Pulmonary Embolism Presentation and Diagnosis
Presentation
Sudden onset Shortness of Breath (S.O.B.)
Tachypnea
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Hemoptysis
Hypoxemia
Sudden Death
Diagnosis
Gold Standard: CT Pulmonary Angiography
X-Ray
D-Dimer
V/Q Scan
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1 min
Tension Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Air Enters Pleural Space, but Can't Exit
Trauma or Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Decreased Breath Sounds
Trachea Deviates Away from Affected Side
Chest Pain
Tachycardia
Tachypnea
Hypotension
Hypoxemia
Hyperresonance
Emergency
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2 mins
Spontaneous Pneumothorax
Mechanism
Accumulation of Air in Pleural Space
Tall and Thin Young Males
Underlying Disease
Bleb or Bulla Rupture
Signs and Symptoms
Chest Pain
Hypoxemia
Decreased Breath Sounds
Hyperresonance
Shortness of Breath (SOB)
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1 min
Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Sweat chloride test > 60 mmol/L
Meconium Ileus
Treatment
N-acetylcysteine
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Pulmonary Maintenance
Lung transplant
Vitamin Replacement
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1 min
Emphysema
Pink Puffer
Exhale through Pursed Lips
Barrel Chest
Obstructive Lung Disease
Increased Lung Compliance
Centriacinar
Panacinar
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1 min
Chronic Bronchitis
Pathophysiology
Chronic Inflammation of Bronchi
Signs and Symptoms
Early-Onset Cyanosis
Blue Bloaters
Productive Cough
Wheezing
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Late-Onset Dyspnea
Crackles
Diagnosis
Reid Index > 50%
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2 mins
Stages of Asthma Treatments
Intermittent Asthma
Short-acting Inhaled Beta-Agonist
Persistent Mild Asthma
Low-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Montelukast (Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist)
Cromolyn (Mast Cell Stabilizers)
Theophylline
Persistent Moderate Asthma
Long-acting Inhaled Beta-Agonist
Zileuton
Low-Medium Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Persistent Severe Asthma
High-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid
Omalizumab (Allergies)
Systemic Corticosteroids
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3 mins
Intermittent Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Bronchoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use ≤ 2 / Week
No Interference With ADLs
Nighttime Awakening < 2 / Month
> 80 % of Predicted FEV1
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Persistent Mild Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Brochoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use > 2 Days / Week
Nighttime Awakening 3-4 / Month
Greater or equal to 80 % of Predicted FEV1
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1 min
Persistent Moderate Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Bronchoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use Daily
Nighttime Awakening > 1 / Week
60-80% Predicted FEV1
FEV1/FVC Decreased 5%
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2 mins
Persistent Severe Asthma
Diagnosis
Symptoms (Bronchoconstriction) and Rescue Inhaler Use: Multiple/ Day
With Minimal Activity
Nighttime Awakening: Nightly
< 60% Predicted FEV1
> 5% Decrease FEV1/FVC
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2 mins
Adenocarcinoma of the Lung
Characteristics
Most Common Lung Cancer
Most Common in Nonsmokers
Peripheral Location
KRAS, EGFR, and ALK Mutations
Diagnosis
Glandular Pattern
Often Stains with Mucin
Clinical Features
Presents with Hemoptysis
Clubbing
Treatment
Surgical Resection
Chemotherapy and Radiation
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2 mins

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