Anna Shared "Pharmacology Exam 2" - 26 Picmonics

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Pharmacology Exam 2

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
"-pril" Suffix
Mechanism of Action
Block Renin Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Dry Non-productive Cough
Hypotension
Dizziness
Possible Hyperkalemia
Angioedema
Nursing Considerations
Slowly Change Position
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Ends in "-sartan"
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Angiotensin II Receptor
Indications
Hypertension
Side Effects
Angioedema
Contraindications
Renal Artery Stenosis
Pregnancy
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1 min
Beta Blockers
"-olol" suffix
Mechanism
Decreases Heart Rate and Contractility
Decreases Peripheral Vascular Resistance
Decreases Renin Release
Indications
Hypertension
Heart Failure
Angina Pectoris
Contraindications
Asthma and Heart Block Patients
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure and Heart Rate
Masking Signs of Hypoglycemia
Do Not Stop Abruptly
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2 mins
Systemic Effects of Beta-Blockers
Respiratory
Bronchoconstriction
Metabolic
Decreased Insulin
Decreased Glycolysis and Lipolysis
Eye
Reduces Intraocular Pressure
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Cardiovascular Effects of Beta-Blockers
Cardiac Myocytes and Vasculature
Decrease cAMP
Decreases SA and AV Node Conduction Velocity
Lower Blood Pressure
Decrease O2 Consumption
Decreases Mortality Post-MI
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2 mins
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil and Diltiazem)
Mechanism of Action
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Angina Pectoris
Arrhythmias
Essential Hypertension
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Constipation
Peripheral Edema
Gingival Hyperplasia
Nursing Consideration
Medication Education
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2 mins
Prazosin (Minipress)
-osin suffix
Mechanisms
Selective Alpha-1 Receptor Blocker
Indications
Hypertension
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Nightmares
Side Effects
Orthostatic Hypotension
Tachycardia
Priapism / Inhibition of Ejaculation
Nasal Congestion
Considerations
First Dose Effect
Administer at Bedtime
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Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick ascending limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl-
Sulfa drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Ototoxicity from Rapid Injection
Gout
Dehydration
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
Orthostatic Hypotension
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K+ Sparing Diuretics
Indications
CHF and Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Hyperaldosteronism
Mechanism of Action
Collecting Tubule
Spironolactone
Competitive Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist
Amiloride and Triamterene
Block Na+ Channels
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
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2 mins
Adenosine (Adenocard)
Mechanism
Slows AV Conduction
Indications
Supraventricular Tachycardia (Paroxysmal)
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Flushing
Dyspnea
Considerations
Rapid IV Push
Caffeine and Theophylline Decrease Effectiveness
Dipyridamole May Intensify Effects
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2 mins
Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
Mechanism
Alpha and Beta Agonist
Indications
Anaphylaxis
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)
Bleeding
Cardiac Arrest
Side Effects
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Tremors
Insomnia
Considerations
Multiple Strengths
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Ephedrine
Mechanism of Action
Alpha Agonist
Beta Agonist
Indications
Rhinitis
Hypotension
Urinary Incontinence
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35 secs
Norepinephrine
Mechanism of Action
Alpha Agonist
Beta1 Agonist
Indications
Hypotension
Side Effect
Decreases Renal Blood Flow
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1 min
Dobutamine
Mechanism
Beta-1 Agonist
Inotropic
Indications
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Tachycardia
Arrhythmias
Considerations
Closely Monitor Patients
Other Meds May Increase Potency
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1 min
Nitroglycerin
Mechanism of Action
Decreases Preload
Indications
Angina
Up to 3 doses q 5 mins
Side Effects
Headache
Hypotension
Contraindications
Viagra (Sildenafil)
Nursing Considerations
Assess Blood Pressure
Protect From Light
Use Glass Bottle and Special Tubing
Gloves for Applying Topically
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2 mins
Hydralazine (Apresoline)
Indications
Severe Hypertension
CHF
Reduced Afterload
Pregnancy
Mechanism of Action
Vasodilates Arterioles
Side Effects
Drug-induced Lupus
Reflex Tachycardia
Hypotension
Considerations
Combined with Diuretic and Beta Blocker
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1 min
Loop Diuretic Education
Furosemide (Lasix)
Indications
Heart Failure
Pulmonary Edema
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
Edema
Education
Notify the provider of weakness, dizziness, or muscle cramping
Increase Potassium Intake
Check BP Daily
Daily Weights and Monitor IandOs
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1 min
Minoxidil (Loniten, Rogaine)
Mechanism
Vasodilates Arterioles
Indications
Severe Hypertension
Baldness
Side Effects
Reflex Tachycardia
Blood Volume Expansion
Hypertrichosis
Pericardial Effusion
Rash
Considerations
Give with Beta Blocker and Diuretic
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2 mins
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
Mechanism of Action
Increases Inotropy
Indications
Heart Failure
Atrial Fibrillation
Side Effects
Bradycardia
Fatigue
Contraindications
Heart Block
Nursing Considerations
Heart Rate Below 60
Hypokalemia
Monitor for Toxicity and Visual Changes
Digibind
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2 mins
Acute Digoxin Toxicity
Clinical Symptoms
Hyperkalemia
Cholinergic (Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea)
Blurry Yellow Green Vision with Halo of Light
Arrhythmia
Bradycardia
EKG Changes
Prolonged PR interval
Decreased QT
Scooping on EKG
T Wave Inversion
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2 mins

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