Lily Shared "Pathophysiology" - 45 Picmonics

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Pathophysiology

Fever
Flushed skin, warm to touch
Chills
Sweating
Change in LOC
Provide adequate fluids
Monitor Electrolytes and Fluid
Monitor vital signs, esp temperature
Remove excess clothing and blankets
Sponge bath with tepid water
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2 mins
Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
Mechanism
Alpha and Beta Agonist
Indications
Anaphylaxis
Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG)
Bleeding
Cardiac Arrest
Side Effects
Tachycardia
Hypertension
Tremors
Insomnia
Considerations
Multiple Strengths
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2 mins
Inflammatory Response
Pathogens Infect Tissue
Mast Cells Release Histamine
Histamine Dilates and Increases Capillary Permeability
Macrophages Engulf Pathogens
Macrophage Signals Cells With Cytokines
Responding Neutrophils Cross Capillary Wall
B And T Lymphocytes Arrive At Injury Site
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2 mins
Acetaminophen
Indications
Fever
Pain
Mechanism of Action
Reversibly inhibits COX
Acts primarily in CNS
Side Effect
Hepatic Necrosis
N-acetylcysteine Antidote
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51 secs
Meningitis Assessment
Assessment
Nausea and Vomiting
Fever
Nuchal Rigidity
Severe Headache
Purpura
Seizures
Photophobia
Infants and Young Children
Opisthotonus Position
High Pitched Cry
Bulging Fontanel
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2 mins
Prednisone (Glucocorticoids)
Mechanism
Glucocorticoid
Indications
Inflammatory Conditions
Organ Transplant Rejection
Side Effects
Cataracts and Glaucoma
Cushing's Syndrome
Osteoporosis
Immunosuppression
Hyperglycemia
Ulcers
Considerations
Adrenal Insufficiency
Taper Gradually
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2 mins
Clotting Overview
Characteristics
Endothelial Cells are Damaged
Platelets Respond to Exposed Collagen and Stick
Platelets Release Recruiting Factors
More Platelets are Attracted
Soluble Fibrinogen Turns to Insoluble Fibrin
Fibrin Seals the Clot
Clot Dissolves
Liver Produces Clotting Factors
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2 mins
Types of Blood Products
Types
Whole Blood
Packed Red Blood Cells
Fresh Frozen Plasma
Immunoglobulins
Clotting Factors
Albumin
Platelets
Considerations
Use within 24 Hours
Washing Removes Antibodies
Irradiation Destroys WBCs
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2 mins
Cisplatin (Platinol)
Mechanism
Alkylating Agent
Cross-Links DNA
Indications
Testicular Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Myelosuppression
Nephrotoxicity
Ototoxicity
Peripheral Neuropathy
Considerations
Antiemetics Before Administration
Aggressive Hydration
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2 mins
Lung Cancer Assessment
2nd Most Common Cancer
Assessment
Chronic Cough
Hoarseness
Abnormal Breath Sounds
Hemoptysis
Chest Pain
Anorexia or Weight Loss
Considerations
Symptoms Appear Late in Disease
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2 mins
Prostate Cancer Assessment
Most Common Cancer in Men
Assessment
Mimics BPH
Metastasis to Back
Low Back Pain
Fatigue
Considerations
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)
Biopsy
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2 mins
Cervical Cancer Assessment
Cause/Mechanism
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Assessment
Metrorrhagia
Leukorrhea
Pain
Abnormal Pap Test
May Be Asymptomatic
Considerations
HPV Vaccine
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2 mins
Leukemia Assessment
Cause
Immature WBCs
Assessment
Recurrent Infections
Easy Bruising
Bleeding
Anemia
Fatigue
Weight Loss
Bone Pain
Considerations
May Have Normal or High WBC Count
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2 mins
Tamoxifen
Mechanism of Action
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)
Antagonist on Breast Tissue
Indications
ER-positive Breast Cancer
Side Effects
Decreased Risk of Osteoporosis
Increased Risk of Endometrial Cancer
Increased Risk of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)
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1 min
pH - Blood and Urine Lab Value
Blood
7.35 - 7.45
Urine
4.0 - 8.0
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1 min
Sodium (Na+) Lab Value
135-145 mEq/L
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24 secs
Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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1 min
Metabolic Acidosis Assessment
Characteristics
Decreased pH < 7.35
Decreased HCO3 < 22
Signs & Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
CNS Depression
Coma
Hypotension
Arrhythmias
Increased Respirations
Kussmaul Respirations
Flushed, Warm, Dry Skin
Muscle Weakness
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2 mins
Metabolic Acidosis Interventions
Interventions
Raise Plasma pH > 7.20
Treat Underlying Cause
Sodium Bicarbonate
Considerations
Follow ABGs
Continuously Monitor Patient
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2 mins
Loop Diuretic Education
Furosemide (Lasix)
Indications
Heart Failure
Pulmonary Edema
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
Edema
Education
Notify the provider of weakness, dizziness, or muscle cramping
Increase Potassium Intake
Check BP Daily
Daily Weights and Monitor IandOs
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1 min

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