Dalton Shared "Clin Med Cardio pt. 1" - 15 Picmonics

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Clin Med Cardio pt. 1

Parts of an ECG
PQRST
P Wave
Atrial Depolarization
QRS Complex
Ventricular Depolarization
T Wave
Ventricular Repolarization
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2 mins
ECG Interpretation
Rate
Rhythm
P Waves
Upright, Rounded, Before Every QRS
PR Interval (< 0.20 seconds)
Normal QRS (< 0.12 seconds)
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2 mins
ECG: Sinus Bradycardia
Rate
< 60 bpm
Rhythm
Regular
P Wave
Present, Upright, Every QRS
PR Interval
< 0.20 seconds
QRS Interval
< 0.12 seconds
Treatment
Atropine
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1 min
ECG: Sinus Tachycardia
Rate
> 100 bpm
Rhythm
Regular
P Wave
Present, Upright, Every QRS
PR Interval
< 0.20 seconds
QRS Interval
< 0.12 seconds
Treatment
Treat Underlying Cause
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2 mins
ECG: Atrial Flutter
Rate
Variable
Rhythm
Regular or Irregular
P Wave
Saw Tooth, Multiple Before Every QRS
PR Interval
Non-measurable
QRS Interval
< 0.12 seconds
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2 mins
ECG: Atrial Fibrillation
Rate
Variable Rate
Rhythm
Irregular Rhythm
P Wave
No P Wave
PR Interval
No PR Interval
QRS Interval
QRS < 0.12 Seconds
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1 min
Torsades de Pointes
Characteristics
Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia
Prolonged QT Interval
QRS Twist Around Isoelectric Line
Causes
Congenital
Antibiotics
Antiarrhythmics
Antipsychotics
Antidepressants
Electrolyte Deficiencies
Complications
Ventricular Fibrillation
Treatment
Stable: Magnesium Sulfate
Unstable: Defibrillation
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3 mins
Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
WPW Pattern vs. WPW Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Ventricular Pre-excitation Syndrome
Accessory Conduction Pathway
Signs & Symptoms
Supraventricular Tachycardia
Atrial Fibrillation
Diagnosis
Shortened PR Interval
Delta Wave
Widened QRS
Treatment
No Treatment if Asymptomatic
Treat Arrhythmia
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3 mins
Myocardial Infarction Assessment
Assessment
Substernal Chest Pain
Crushing or Dull Sensation
Arm, Jaw, and Neck
> 20 Minutes
Unrelieved by Nitro
Palpitations
Diaphoresis
Fear of Impending Doom
Nausea and Vomiting
Shortness of Breath
Considerations
Monitor for Arrhythmias
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Diagnosis
Diagnosis
12 Lead ECG
ST Elevation
Q Wave
T Wave Inversion
Troponin T and I
CK-MB
Considerations
Early ECG
Cardiac Stress Test
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2 mins
Myocardial Infarction Interventions
MONA
Morphine
Oxygen
Nitrates
Aspirin
Thrombolytics (tPA)
Invasive Procedures
Cardiac Catheterization
Stent Placement
Angioplasty
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
Considerations
Decrease Modifiable Risk Factors
Resuming Activity (Physical, Sexual)
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2 mins
Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Troponin
Measures
Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 1 Hour
Peak: 10 - 24 Hours
Return to Normal: 5 - 14 Days
Considerations
Most Specific for Cardiac Muscle
Treated Aggressively
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2 mins
Cardiac Enzyme Evaluation: Creatine Kinase CK-MB
Measures
Skeletal or Cardiac Muscle Injury
Time Ranges
Onset: 4-8 Hours
Peak: 12-24 Hours
Return to Normal: 2-3 Days
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1 min
Cardiac Catheterization
Considerations
Fluttering Sensation
Contrast Media
NPO 6-12 Hours
After Procedure
Bed Rest
Assess Circulation
Assess for Bleeding
Monitor Vital Signs
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2 mins
Evolution of Myocardial Infarction and Complications
Hours to Days
Arrhythmia
Before 7 Days
Fibrinous Pericarditis
Papillary Muscle Rupture
Interventricular Septum Rupture
Before 14 Days
Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm
Ventricular Free Wall Rupture
After 14 Days
True Ventricular Aneurysm
Dressler Syndrome
Other
Left Ventricular Failure
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2 mins

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