Whitney Shared "Special Patient Populations" - 334 Picmonics

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Special Patient Populations

Age 2 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Holds Head Up, But Unsteady
Fine Motor
Tracks Objects to the Midline
Language
Coos
Social / Cognitive
Social Smile
Recognizes Parents
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1 min
Age 4 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Sits With Support
Rooting Reflex Disappears
Moro Reflex Disappears
Fine Motor
Reaches Across Midline
Language
Turns to Voice
Laughs
Social / Cognitive
Enjoys Looking Around
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2 mins
Age 6 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Palmar Reflex Disappears
Sits Propped Up On Hands
Rolls
Fine Motor
Transfers Objects Hands to Hands
Raking Grasp
Language
Babbles
Responds to Name
Social / Cognitive
Stranger Anxiety Develops
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2 mins
Age 9 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Pulls to Stand
Starts Cruising
Fine Motor
Three-Finger Pincer Grasp
Holds Bottle or Cup
Language
Starts Sounding "Mama" or "Dada"
Social / Cognitive
Waves Bye
Separation Anxiety
Plays Pat-A-Cake
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2 mins
Age 1 Year - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Stands Well
First Steps
Throws Ball
Points to Objects
Babinski Reflex Disappears
Fine Motor
Two-Finger Pincer Grasp
Language
"Mama & Dada"
Social / Cognitive
One-Step Commands with Gesture
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2 mins
Age 18 Months - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Climbs Up Stairs
Runs
Fine Motor
Stacks Three Blocks
Eats with Spoon
Removes Clothing
Language
10-25 Word Vocabulary
Social / Cognitive
“Mine”
Pretend Play
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2 mins
Age 2 Years - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Jumps
Fine Motor
Copies a Line
Stacks Six Blocks
Turns Pages
Language
Two-Word Phrases
Half of Speech is Understandable
200 Words by Age 2
Social / Cognitive
Parallel Play
Begins Toilet Training
Rapprochement
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2 mins
Age 3 Years - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Walks Up/Down Steps with Alternating Feet
Rides Tricycle
Fine Motor
Nine Block Tower
Copies Circle
Uses Utensils
Language
Three-Word Sentences
75% Speech Understood by Stranger
Social / Cognitive
Knows Gender / Age
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2 mins
Age 4 Years - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Hop on One Foot
Fine Motor
Copies Square
Uses Fork Well
Language
100% Speech Understandable
Identifies Colors
Social/ Cognitive
Cooperative Play
Imaginary Friends
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2 mins
Age 5 Years - Developmental Milestones
Gross Motor
Skips
Walk Backward
Fine Motor
Copies Triangle
Ties Shoelaces
Independent Dressing / Bathing
Prints Letters
Language
Counts to 10
Five-word sentences
Friends
Social / Cognitive
Completes Toilet Training
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2 mins
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
Features
Blue Baby Syndrome
Mechanism
PROVe Acronym
Pulmonary Infundibular Stenosis
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy
Overriding Aorta
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Diagnosis and Treatment
Boot-Shaped Heart
Squatting for Tet Spells
Surgery
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2 mins
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
Pathophysiology
Hole in Septum between the Atria
Symptoms
Often Asymptomatic
Wide and Fixed Split S2
Cyanosis and Dyspnea
Easily Fatigued
Diagnosis
Chest X-ray shows Increased Pulmonary Vascular Markings
Echocardiogram
Treatment
Surgery if CHF as Child
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Most Close Spontaneously
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2 mins
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Pathophysiology
Opening at Intraventricular Septum
Most Common Congenital Heart lesion
Symptoms
High-pitched Holosystolic Murmer (over left sternal border)
Dyspnea and Respiratory Distress
Loud Pulmonic S2
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Treatment
Small VSDs Close Spontaneously
Large VSDs Require Surgery
Complications
Endocarditis
Eisenmenger's Syndrome
CHF
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2 mins
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Continuous
Machine like murmur
Often Due to Congenital Rubella
Prematurity
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1 min
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus
Common Arterial Trunk
Single Trunk Emerges from Both Ventricles
Symptoms
Cyanosis
Pulmonary Congestion
Heart Failure
Single S2 Sound
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Chest X-ray
Treatment
Early Surgical Correction
Avoids Pulmonary Hypertension
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2 mins
Coarctation of The Aorta
Pathophysiology
Constriction of a Portion of Aorta
Turner Syndrome
Symptoms
Asymptomatic Hypertension
BP Higher in Upper Extremities, Right Arm
CHF
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Cardiac Catheterization
3 Sign on Chest X-Ray
Rib Notching
Treatment
Surgical Correction
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2 mins
Transposition of Great Vessels
Pathophysiology
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation are in Parallel
Incompatible with Life without a Shunt
Symptoms
Severe Cyanosis at Birth
Single S2 sound
Diagnosis
Echocardiogram
Chest X-ray shows "Egg-shaped Silhouette"
Treatment
Prostaglandin
Avoid NSAIDs
Surgical Correction
Balloon Atrial Septostomy
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2 mins
Mitral Regurgitation
Characteristics
Holosystolic
Blowing Murmur
Loudest at Apex
Radiates toward Axilla
Louder by Squatting
Hand Grip
Expiration
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1 min
Mitral Stenosis
Characteristics
Murmur Follows Opening Snap
Late Diastolic Murmur
Enhanced by Expiration
Low-Pitched Rumbling
Dilation of Left Atrium (LA)
Recurrent Attacks of Rheumatic Fever
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2 mins
Child and Elder Physical Abuse Assessment
Physical Abuse
Inconsistent Injuries
Delay in Treatment
Various Stages of Healing
Child Abuse
Symmetrical Burns
Sexually Transmitted Infection
Bloody/Torn Undergarments
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Elder Abuse
Poor Hygiene
Overmedication
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2 mins

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