Carla Shared "705- Module 6 Hematologic and Neoplasms" - 16 Picmonics

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705- Module 6 Hematologic and Neoplasms

Folate Deficiency
Clinical Features
Macrocytic Anemia
Megaloblastic Anemia
Etiologies
Malabsorption
Dietary
Tea and Toast
Alcoholics
Medication-induced
Methotrexate
Trimethoprim
Increased Requirement
Hemolytic Anemia
Pregnancy
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2 mins
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Causes
Malnutrition/Malabsorption
Hemorrhage
Signs
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Decreased Heme Synthesis
Labs
Decreased Reticulocytes
Decreased Ferritin
Increased Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
Poikilocytosis
Anisocytosis
Increased Central Pallor
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2 mins
Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia Causes
Intrinsic Hemolytic
Hereditary Spherocytosis
RBC Enzyme Deficiency
Hemoglobin C Defect
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH)
Sickle Cell Anemia
Extrinsic Hemolytic
Autoimmune
Microangiopathic
Mechanical Destruction
Prosthetic Cardiac Valves
Infection
Snake Venom
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2 mins
Polycythemia Vera Disease
Pathophysiology
JAK2 Mutation leading to increased red blood cells
Tyrosine Kinase
Symptoms
Erythromelalgia
Pruritus
Often After Hot Shower
Headache
Treatment
Phlebotomy
Aspirin
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1 min
Polycythemia Vera Labs
Lab Findings (The 4 H's)
Hypervolemia
Histaminemia
Hyperviscosity
Hyperuricemia
Diagnosis
Elevated Hemoglobin or Hematocrit
Positive Jak2 Mutation
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1 min
Infectious Mononucleosis
Mechanism
Herpes-like Viral Infection
Signs and Symptoms
Fatigue
Fever
Sore Throat
Head and Body Aches
Hepatomegaly and Splenomegaly
Swollen Lymph Nodes in Neck and Armpits
Rash
Considerations
Suppressed Immune Response
Positive Monospot
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2 mins
Factor V Leiden Thrombophilia
Pathophysiology
Most Common Genetic Clotting Disorder in Caucasians
Genetic Point Mutation
Glutamine Replaces Arginine
Mutant Factor V
Resistant to Degradation by Activated Protein C
Symptoms
Hypercoagulability
Recurrent DVT (Increased Risk of Thromboembolism)
Considerations
Avoid Oral Contraceptives
Caution During Pregnancy
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Mechanism)
Intrinsic Normocytic Hemolytic Anemia
Point Mutation
Autosomal Recessive
African-American
Dehydration or Decreased O2
Newborns Asymptomatic
Heterozygote Malarial Resistance
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2 mins
Sickle Cell Anemia (Signs and Complications)
Signs
Crew-cut on Skull X-ray
Complications
Auto-splenectomy
Painful Crisis
Aplastic Crisis
Splenic-sequestration Crisis
Hyper-hemolytic Syndrome
Renal Papillary Necrosis
Salmonella osteomyelitis
Pulmonary Hypertension
Hyposthenuria
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2 mins
Beta Thalassemia
Mechanism
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Mediterranean Populations
Decreased Beta-Globin
Beta-Thalassemia Minor
Increased HbA2
No Intervention
Beta-thalassemia Major
Blood Transfusions
Hemochromatosis
Crew-cut on Skull X-Ray
Diagnosis
Electrophoresis
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2 mins
Hemophilia
Cause/Mechanism
Genetic Mutation
Assessment
Prolonged Bleeding
Pain
Hemarthrosis
Interventions
Clotting Factor Replacement Therapy
DDAVP (Desmopressin Acetate)
Antifibrinolytic Therapy
Analgesics
Considerations
Genetic Counseling
Prevent Injury
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3 mins
Von Willebrand Disease
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorder
Mechanism
Autosomal Dominant Condition Leading to Reduced vWF
Defect in platelet plug formation
Labs
Increased Bleeding Time
PTT increased
Factor VIII decreased
Normal platelet count
Treatment
DDAVP (synthetic vasopressin)
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1 min
Microcytic Anemia Causes
MCV < 80
Causes
Thalassemias
Chronic Disease or Illness
Lead Toxicity
Late Iron Deficiency
Sideroblastic Anemia
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1 min
Macrocytic Anemia Causes
MCV > 100
Megaloblastic
B12 Deficiency
Folate Deficiency
Orotic Aciduria
Non Megaloblastic
Alcoholism
Liver Disease
Reticulocytosis
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2 mins
Normocytic Nonhemolytic Anemia Causes
MCV 80-100
Nonhemolytic
Anemia of Chronic Disease/Inflammation
Aplastic Anemia
Chronic Kidney Disease
Early Iron Deficiency
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1 min
Anemia Lab Values
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Serum Iron Decreased
Transferrin Increased
Ferritin Decreased
% Transferrin Saturation Decreased
Pregnancy and OCP Use
Serum Iron Normal
Transferrin Increased
Ferritin Normal
% Transferrin Saturation Decreased
Anemia of Chronic Disease
Serum Iron Decreased
Transferrin Decreased
Ferritin Increased
% Transferrin Saturation Decreased or Normal
Hemochromatosis
Serum Iron Increased
Transferrin Decreased
Ferritin Increased
% Transferrin Saturation Increased
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3 mins

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