Divya Shared "Neurology for term 2" - 68 Picmonics

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Neurology for term 2

Glasgow Coma Scale
LOC Assessment
Score of 3 to 15
8 or Less = Coma
Eye Opening
Verbal Response
Motor Response
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1 min
Migraine Headaches Signs and Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
More Common in Women
Exacerbated by Activity
Unilateral Pulsating Pain
Aura
Photophobia and Phonophobia
Nausea/Vomiting
Duration
4 hours to 3 Days
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1 min
Migraine Headache Treatments
Acute Treatment
Avoid Triggers
Sumatriptan
NSAIDs
Preventative Treatment
Beta Blockers
Calcium Channel Blockers
Amitriptyline
Topiramate (Anticonvulsants)
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1 min
Cluster Headache
Presentation
More Common in Men
Unilateral Periorbital Headache
Ipsilateral Tearing
Precipitated by Alcohol
Stabbing Pain
Duration
15 min - 3 Hours
Repetitive Attacks in Clusters
Treatment
High Flow 100% O2
Ergots
Sumatriptan
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2 mins
Tension Headache
Presentation
More Common in Women
Bilateral Band-like Pain
Occipital and Neck region
Exacerbated by Stress
Exacerbated by Fatigue
Duration
> 30 Minutes
Acute Treatment
Relaxation
Caffeine
NSAIDs
Acetaminophen
Preventative Treatment
Amitriptyline
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1 min
Sumatriptan
Mechanism of Action
Short Half-Life
5-HT Agonist
Inhibits Trigeminal Nerve Activation
Induces Vasoconstriction
Indications
Migraine
Cluster Headache
Side Effects
Increased Risk of Serotonin Syndrome
Paresthesias
Coronary Vasospasm
Contraindication
Prinzmetal's Angina
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
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3 mins
NSAIDs
Indications
Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic
Fever
Closure of PDA
Mechanism of Action
Reversible Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Block Prostaglandin Synthesis
Side Effects
Interstitial Nephritis
Gastric Ulcer
Renal Ischemia
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1 min
Acetaminophen
Indications
Fever
Pain
Mechanism of Action
Reversibly inhibits COX
Acts primarily in CNS
Side Effect
Hepatic Necrosis
N-acetylcysteine Antidote
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51 secs
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
Mechanisms
NSAID
COX Inhibitor
Indications
General Pain
Fever
Inflammatory Conditions
Side Effects
GI Ulcers
Nephrotoxicity
Rash
Considerations
Avoid with Alcohol
Risk of Thrombotic Event
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2 mins
Methylergonovine (Methergine) and Ergotamine (Ergot Alkaloids)
Mechanism
Smooth Muscle Contraction
Vasoconstriction
Indications
Migraine
Postpartum Hemorrhage
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Severe Hypertension
Tachycardia
Considerations
2nd Line Agent
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2 mins
Topiramate
Indications
Seizure Treatment
Migraine Prophylaxis
Mechanism of Action
Increase GABA Action
Blocks Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels
Side Effects
Kidney Stones
Weight Loss
Sedation
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1 min
Aspirin
Indications
Fever
Pain and Headache
Cardiovascular Disease (CAD)
Mechanism of Action
Irreversible inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Suppress Thromboxanes and Prostaglandins
NSAID
Side Effects
Reye's Syndrome
Tinnitus
Peptic Ulceration
Mixed Acidosis/Alkalosis
Nephropathy
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2 mins
Benzodiazepines Overview
Indications
First Line for Status Epilepticus
Anesthesia Induction
Anxiety
Eclampsia
Detoxification
Mechanism of Action
'-zepam' and '-zolam" Suffix
Increase Frequency of Cl- Channel Opening
Side Effects
Decrease REM Sleep
CNS Depression
Dependence
Antidote
Flumazenil for Overdose
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2 mins
Barbiturates
Barb- Drug Names
Indications
Seizure Treatment
Anesthesia Induction
Mechanism of Action
Increased Duration of Cl- Channel Opening
Decrease Neuron Firing
Side Effects
Sedation
Cardiovascular and Respiratory Depression
CNS Depression
P450 inducer
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2 mins
Phenytoin
Indications
Status Epilepticus
Tonic-Clonic Seizures
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Na+ Channel Activation
Inhibition of Glutamate Release
Class IB Antiarrhythmic
Side Effects
Teratogenic
Macrocytic Megaloblastic Anemia
Induce Cytochrome P450
Drug-induced Lupus
Neuropathy
Hirsutism
Gingival Hyperplasia
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1 min
Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
Mechanism
Inactivates Na+ Channels
Indications
Seizures
Bipolar Disorder
Trigeminal Neuralgia
Side Effects
Nystagmus
Ataxia
Hepatotoxicity
Blood Dyscrasias
Water Retention
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Considerations
Avoid Grapefruit Juice
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2 mins
Ethosuximide
Indications
First Line Absence Seizure Treatment
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Thalamic T-Type Ca2+ Channels
Side Effects
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Fatigue
Diarrhea
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32 secs
Valproic Acid
Indications
First Line Tonic-Clonic Seizure Treatment
Bipolar Disorder
Migraine Prophylaxis
Mechanism of Action
Increases GABA Concentration
Blocks Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels
Side Effect
GI Distress
Contraindication
Contraindicated in Pregnancy
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1 min
Gabapentin
Primary Indication
Seizure Treatment
Secondary Indications
Peripheral Neuropathy
Postherpetic Neuralgia
Bipolar Disorder
Migraine Prophylaxis
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Voltage-Gated Ca2+ channels
GABA Analog
Side Effects
Ataxia
Sedation
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1 min
Lamotrigine
Indications
Seizure Treatment
Bipolar Disorder
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels
Side Effect
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
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1 min

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