Sue Shared "Path Exam 2" - 11 Picmonics

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Path Exam 2

Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms and Diagnosis
Symptoms
Optic Neuritis
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Scanning Speech
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Motor Issues (Intention Tremor, Paresis)
Numbness and Pain
Depression
Relapsing Symptoms
Diagnosis
Gold Standard = Plaques on MRI
Increased CSF Immunoglobulins (IgG)
Oligoclonal Bands
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4 mins
Multiple Sclerosis Features and Mechanisms
Features
Twice as often in Women
Presents in 20's and 30's
Northern Europeans
Mechanism
Unknown mechanism, genetic factor
HLA-DRB1
Autoimmune Demyelination of CNS
White Matter of Brain and Spinal Cord
T Cell Mediated Inflammation
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2 mins
Glioblastoma Multiforme
Most Common Primary Brain Tumor
Grade 4 Astrocytoma
Can Cross Corpus Callosum
Butterfly Glioma
Pseudo-palisading Tumor Cells
Areas of Necrosis and Hemorrhage
Stain Astrocytes for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)
Grave Prognosis
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2 mins
Pilocytic Astrocytoma
Occurs Most Commonly in Kids
Posterior Fossa
Cerebellum
Well Circumscribed
GFAP
Rosenthal Fibers
Eosinophilic Corkscrew Fibers
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1 min
Oligodendroglioma
Slow growing tumor
Frontal lobe
Chicken Wire Pattern
Fried egg appearance
Calcifications
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31 secs
Ependymoma
Occur in Children
Fourth Ventricle
Hydrocephalus
Perivascular Pseudorosettes
Rod Shaped Blepharoplasts
Cauda Equina in Adults
Poor Prognosis
Neurofibromatosis Type II
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2 mins
Medulloblastoma
Pathophysiology
Occur in children
Cerebellum
Fourth ventricle
Diagnosis
Small blue cells
Lots of mitotic figures
Homer Wright Rosettes
Perivascular pseudorosettes
Signs and Symptoms
Hydrocephalus
Ataxia
Wide-based Gait
Treatment
Radiosensitive
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3 mins
Meningioma
Epidemiology
Most Common Adult Primary Brain Tumor
pathology
Benign
Originate from Arachnoid Villi
Dural Attachment
Parasagittal
Clinical Manifestations
Contralateral Leg Weakness
Seizures
Diagnosis
Psammoma Bodies
Calcifications
Increased Bone Density
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3 mins
Huntington's Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Trinucleotide Repeat
CAG Repeats
Chromosome 4
Anticipation
Caudate
Decrease of ACh
Decrease of GABA
Signs and Symptoms
Chorea
Dementia
Depression
Glutamate Toxicity
Neuronal Death via NMDA Binding
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3 mins
Lewy Body Dementia
Pathophysiology
Unknown Etiology
Decreased Acetylcholine
Alpha-synuclein Defect
Eosinophilic Cytoplasmic Inclusion
Signs and Symptoms
Visual Hallucinations
Progressive Dementia
Fluctuating Cognition
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Parkinsonism
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
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3 mins
Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Chromosome 17
Signs and Symptoms
Neurofibromas
Optic Glioma
Lisch Nodules
Hamartomas
Cafe Au Lait Spots
Scoliosis
Pheochromocytoma
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4 mins

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