Patrick Shared "Micro 2: Immuno Disorders" - 26 Picmonics

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Micro 2: Immuno Disorders

Anaphylaxis Intervention
Intervention
Assess Airway and Oxygen Needs
Reassure Patient with Anxiety
Trendelenburg Position
Methylprednisolone (Solu-medrol)
Epinephrine
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
Medical Alert Bracelet
2 mins
Ataxia Telangiectasia
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
ATM Gene
Defect in DNA repair
Signs & Symptoms
Cerebellar defects
Spider Angiomas
Sensitive to Radiation
Defective Tumor Suppressor Gene
Increased risk of Cancer, Leukemias, and Lymphomas
Increased AFP levels
IgA deficiency
Repeated sinopulmonary infections
2 mins
Bruton (X-linked) Agammaglobulinemia (DEMO)
X-linked Recessive
Blocks B Cell Maturation
Decreased Immunoglobulins of all Classes
Recurrent Bacterial Infections after 6 Months
1 min
Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia
Pathophysiology
X-linked Recessive
Defective Bruton Tyrosine Kinase
Blocks B Cell Maturation
Signs & Symptoms
Decreased Immunoglobulins of All Classes
Bacterial Infections After Six Months
Maternal IgG Protects Before Six Months
2 mins
Bullous Pemphigoid
Linear Deposits of IgG
Affects Hemidesmosomes
Epidermal Basement Membrane
Tense Blisters on Skin
Nikolsky Negative
Contain Eosinophils
Rarely Affect Oral Mucosa
2 mins
Chediak-Higashi Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Defective Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator Gene (LYST)
Defect In Microtubular Function
Decrease In Phagocytosis
Signs And Symptoms
Recurrent Pyogenic Infections
Staph Aureus And Streptococci
Partial Albinism
Peripheral Neuropathy
Pancytopenia
Diagnosis
Giant Granules In Granulocytes And Platelets
2 mins
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Pathophysiology
Most Commonly X-linked Recessive
Defective NADPH Oxidase (Enzyme Complex)
Decreased Hydrogen Peroxide
Impaired Intracellular Killing in Phagocytes
Signs and Symptoms
Recurrent Purulent Skin and Lung Infections
Catalase Positive Organisms
Diagnosis
Negative Nitroblue Tetrazolium Test
DHR (Dihydrorhodamine) Flow Cytometry
Treatment
Antimicrobial Prophylaxis
TMP-SMX
Itraconazole
Interferon-Gamma
3 mins
Common Variable Immunodeficiency
Pathophysiology
Defect in B Cell Maturation
Decreased plasma cells
Decreased immunoglobulins
Signs & Symptoms
Sinopulmonary infections
Increased Risk of Autoimmune Disease
Lymphoma
1 min
Graves' Disease Characteristics
Women 20-40 years old
Pathophysiology
Anti-TSH Receptor Antibodies
Symptoms
Ophthalmopathy
Exophthalmos
Hyperthyroidism
Goiter
Pretibial Myxedema
1 min
Graves' Disease Labs and Treatment
Labs
Decreased TSH
Increased T3
Increased T4
Radioactive Iodine Uptake (RAIU)
Treatment
Beta blocker
Methimazole
Radioiodine Ablation
1 min
HLA-B27 Associations
Associations
PAIR Acronym
Psoriatic Arthritis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Reiter's Syndrome
1 min
Hyper IgM Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Deficient CD40 Ligand on Helper T-cells
Defective CD40 Receptor on B-cells
Inability to Class Switch
Signs and Symptoms
Pyogenic Abscess
Decreased IgG, IgA, IgE
4 mins
Hypersensitivity Type I
Previous Antigen Exposure
Immediate Reaction
IgE Cross-linking
Presensitized Mast Cells
Histamine Release
Vasodilation
Anaphylaxis
Allergies
Treatment
Epinephrine
1 min
Hypersensitivity Type II
Cytotoxic
IgM or IgG antibody-mediated
Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
Mechanism
Opsonization
Complement Activation
NK Cells
Testing
Direct Coombs test
Indirect Coombs Test
1 min
Hypersensitivity Type III
Immune Complex
Antigen-antibody (IgG) complex activates complement
Neutrophils release lysozomal enzymes
Examples
Arthus Reaction
Serum Sickness
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
1 min
Hypersensitivity Type IV
Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
T Cell Mediated
Antibody Independant
Macrophages Activated
Examples
Transplant Rejection
PPD Skin Test
Contact Dermatitis
1 min
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Integrin CD18 Protein
Defect in LFA-1
Attached to ICAM
Signs and Symptoms
Neutrophilia
Bacterial Infections
Non-Pyogenic
Delayed Separation of Umbilical Cord
2 mins
Myasthenia Gravis
Mechanism
Antibodies to Acetylcholine Receptor
Symptoms
Ptosis
Diplopia
Weakness with Muscle Use
Respiratory Death
Thymus Associated
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Plasmapheresis
Thymectomy
1 min
Myocardial Infarction Diagnosis
Diagnosis
12 Lead ECG
ST Elevation
Q Wave
T Wave Inversion
Troponin T and I
CK-MB
Considerations
Early ECG
Cardiac Stress Test
2 mins
Selective IgA Deficiency
Pathophysiology
Defect in Class Switching
Decreased IgA
Signs and Symptoms
Often Asymptomatic
Increase in Atopic & Autoimmune Diseases
Sinopulmonary Infections
Increased Risk Giardia Lamblia Infections
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Celiac Disease
Considerations
Anaphylaxis From IgA Containing Blood Products
2 mins

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