Crystal Shared "Pharm" - 102 Picmonics

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Pharm

Loop Diuretics
Mechanism of Action
Thick ascending limb of Loop of Henle
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl-
Sulfa drug
Drug Names
Furosemide
Lasix
Side Effects
Ototoxicity from Rapid Injection
Gout
Dehydration
Hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia
Orthostatic Hypotension
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2 mins
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Mechanism
Osmotic Diuresis
Indications
Reducing Intracranial Pressure
Reducing Intraocular Pressure
Renal Failure Prophylaxis
Side Effects
Edema
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance
Considerations
Avoid Use in Cardiac Patients
IV Administration
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2 mins
Loop Diuretic Education
Furosemide (Lasix)
Indications
Heart Failure
Pulmonary Edema
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
Edema
Education
Notify the provider of weakness, dizziness, or muscle cramping
Increase Potassium Intake
Check BP Daily
Daily Weights and Monitor IandOs
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1 min
Ethacrynic Acid
Mechanism of Action
Non-sulfa Drug
Phenoxyacetic Acid Derivative
Loop Diuretic
Inhibits Na+-K+-2Cl- Cotransporter
Thick Ascending Loop of Henle
Clinical Use
Diuresis
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Ototoxicity
Gout
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Hydrochlorothiazide HCTZ
Mechanism of Action
Inhibits Reabsorption NaCl and H2O
Indications
Edema
Mild to Moderate Hypertension
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Hyponatremia
Dehydration
Hyperglycemia
Gout
Contraindications
Sulfa Allergy
Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
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1 min
Spironolactone (Aldactone)
Mechanisms
Inhibition of Aldosterone
Potassium Retention
Indications
Hypertension
Edema
Heart Failure
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Endocrine Effects
Consideration
Avoid Potassium Supplements
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2 mins
Erythropoietin
Mechanism
Stimulates RBC Production
Indications
Chronic Renal Failure
Anemia
Side Effects
Increased Risk of Thrombosis
Pelvic and Limb Pain
Hypertension
Considerations
Do Not Shake
Monitor Hemoglobin (Hgb) Weekly
May Accelerate Tumor Progression
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2 mins
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)
Ends in "-sartan"
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Angiotensin II Receptor
Indications
Hypertension
Side Effects
Angioedema
Contraindications
Renal Artery Stenosis
Pregnancy
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1 min
Omeprazole (Prilosec)
"-prazole" Suffix
Indications
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Gastritis
Peptic Ulcer
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Mechanism
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
Inhibit H+/K+/ATPase
Side Effects
Hip Fracture
Pneumonia
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2 mins
Cimetidine and Ranitidine (H2 Receptor Blockers)
-tidine Suffix
Mechanism
H2 Receptor Blocker
Indications
Suppress Gastric Acid Secretion
Side Effects (All)
Pneumonia
Side Effects - Cimetidine
Anti-androgen Effects
CNS Changes
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2 mins
Pancreatin, Pancrelipase (Pancreatic Enzymes)
Mechanism
Pancreatic Enzymes
Indications
Cystic Fibrosis
Pancreatic Insufficiency
Side Effects
GI Distress
Considerations
Inactivated by Gastric Acid
24 Hour Fat Excretion
Take with Every Meal and Snack
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2 mins
Sucralfate (Carafate)
Mechanism
Creates Protective Barrier
Indications
GI Ulcers
Side Effects
Constipation
Considerations
Require Acidic Environment
Give on Empty Stomach
Oral Suspension Available
May Decrease Absorption of Other Meds
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Activated Charcoal (Actidose)
Mechanism
Binds to Toxins
Indications
Ingested Poison
Side Effects
Black Stool
GI Distress
Considerations
Give As Soon As Possible
Via Mouth or NG Tube
Gastric Lavage
Do Not Administer with Antidotes
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2 mins
Promethazine (Phenergan)
Mechanism
Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonist
Weak Dopamine Antagonist
Indications
Nausea and Vomiting
Motion Sickness
Side Effects
Respiratory Depression
Sedation
Anticholinergic Effects
Extrapyramidal Symptoms
Considerations
Use Large Bore IV
Monitor for Tissue Necrosis
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Ondansetron
Indications
Postoperative Vomiting
Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting
Mechanism
5-HT3 Serotonergic Antagonist
Centrally-acting Antiemetic
Side Effects
Headache
Constipation
QT Prolongation
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1 min
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Mechanism
Maintains Mucous Membranes
Eyes and Skin
Indications
Dietary Deficiency
Skin Disorders
Side Effects
Hepatosplenomegaly
Jaundice
Increased ICP
Vomiting
Considerations
Teratogen
Animal Food Products
Dark Green and Orange Fruits/Vegetables
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2 mins
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Mechanism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Indications
Dietary Deficiency
Beriberi
Wernicke-Korsakoff
Considerations
Alcoholics Highest Risk
Give Before Glucose
Give IM or IV
Enriched Whole Grains
Pork
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2 mins
Vitamin B3 - Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)
Mechanism
Decreases Triglycerides
Decreases LDL
Increases HDL
Indications
Dyslipidemia
Pellagra
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
Dementia
Side Effects
Flushing
GI Distress
Hepatotoxicity
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2 mins
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Mechanism
Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism
Heme Synthesis
Neurotransmitters
Indications
Adjunct to Isoniazid
Dietary Deficiency
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
Side Effects
Ataxia
Peripheral Neuropathy
Contraindications
Levodopa
Considerations
Cereals and Meats
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3 mins
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)
Mechanism
Vitamin B12
Indications
Vitamin Deficiency
Pernicious Anemia
Side Effects
Hypokalemia
Arthralgia
Dizziness
Considerations
IM Injection for Pernicious Anemia
Never Give IV
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2 mins

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