Jake Shared "B3PHARM3" - 23 Picmonics

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B3PHARM3

Local Anesthetic Overview
Indications
Minor Procedures
Epidurals
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Na+ Channels
State Dependent
Combined with Vasoconstrictors
Infected Tissue Requires Higher Dose
Drugs
Esters
Amides
Side Effects
Arrhythmias
Cardiotoxicity
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1 min
Lidocaine
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Ventricular Arrhythmia
Anesthetic
Side Effects
Paresthesias
Seizures
Respiratory Depression
Drowsiness
Consideration
Anesthetic Effects Extended with Epinephrine
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1 min
Inhaled Anesthetics
Mechanism of Action
Unknown Mechanism
Inhaled Anesthetic Drugs
HEISMN Drug Name Acronym
Side Effects
Respiratory Depression
Myocardial Depression
Lower Metabolic Demand, Increased Cerebral Blood Flow
Hepatotoxicity (Halothane)
Nephrotoxicity (Methoxyflurane)
Seizure (Enflurane)
Malignant Hyperthermia
Expansion of Trapped Gas
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2 mins
IV Anesthetics
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Respiratory Depression
Hypotension
Ketamine
NMDA Receptor Antagonist
Hallucinations
Opioids
Propofol
Potentiates GABA-A
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2 mins
Benzodiazepines Overview
Indications
First Line for Status Epilepticus
Anesthesia Induction
Anxiety
Eclampsia
Detoxification
Mechanism of Action
'-zepam' and '-zolam" Suffix
Increase Frequency of Cl- Channel Opening
Side Effects
Decrease REM Sleep
CNS Depression
Dependence
Antidote
Flumazenil for Overdose
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2 mins
Benzodiazepine Intoxication Assessment
Drowsiness
Confusion
Respiratory Depression
Hypotension
Coma
Treatment
Flumazenil (Romazicon)
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2 mins
Cocaine Intoxication Assessment
Euphoria
Delusions
Mydriasis
Hallucinations
Agitation
Hypertension
Arrhythmias
Hyperthermia
Seizures
Nasal Septum Perforation
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2 mins
Opioids Overview
Indications
Pain
Weaning
Cough
Diarrhea
Mechanism of Action
Agonists at Mu (μ), Kappa (Κ), and Delta (δ) Receptors
Decrease Synaptic Transmission
Side Effects
Respiratory Depression
Addiction
Miosis
Constipation
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2 mins
5 A's of Alzheimer's Disease
Agnosia
Anomia
Aphasia
Apraxia
Amnesia
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1 min
Donepezil
Indications
Alzheimer's Disease
Mechanism of Action
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor
Increased Acetylcholine
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
Dizziness
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51 secs
Memantine
Indications
Alzheimer's Disease
Mechanism of Action
NMDA Receptor Antagonist
Prevents Excitotoxicity
Side Effects
Confusion
Hallucinations
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1 min
Huntington's Disease
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Trinucleotide Repeat
CAG Repeats
Chromosome 4
Anticipation
Caudate
Decrease of ACh
Decrease of GABA
Signs and Symptoms
Chorea
Dementia
Depression
Glutamate Toxicity
Neuronal Death via NMDA Binding
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3 mins
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Assessment
Progressive Muscle Weakness
Systemic Muscle Wasting
Fasciculations
Spasticity
Fatigue
Considerations
Riluzole (Rilutek)
Moderate Exercise
No Cognitive Decline
Respiratory Support
Palliative Care
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2 mins
Multiple Sclerosis Features and Mechanisms
Features
Twice as often in Women
Presents in 20's and 30's
Northern Europeans
Mechanism
Unknown mechanism, genetic factor
HLA-DRB1
Autoimmune Demyelination of CNS
White Matter of Brain and Spinal Cord
T Cell Mediated Inflammation
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2 mins
Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms and Diagnosis
Symptoms
Optic Neuritis
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
Scanning Speech
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence
Motor Issues (Intention Tremor, Paresis)
Numbness and Pain
Depression
Relapsing Symptoms
Diagnosis
Gold Standard = Plaques on MRI
Increased CSF Immunoglobulins (IgG)
Oligoclonal Bands
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4 mins
Multiple Sclerosis Interventions
Drug Therapy
Corticosteroids
Interferon Beta
Dimethyl Fumarate (Tecfidera)
Fingolimod (Gilenya)
Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
Natalizumab (Tysabri)
Considerations
Increase Exercise
Identify Triggers
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2 mins
Parkinson's Disease Assessment
Assessment
Decreased Dopamine
Older Adult
Cogwheel Rigidity
Bradykinesia
Shuffling Gait
Resting Tremor
Pill-Rolling
Mask-Like Face
Cognitive Decline
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2 mins
Lewy Body Dementia
Pathophysiology
Unknown Etiology
Decreased Acetylcholine
Alpha-synuclein Defect
Eosinophilic Cytoplasmic Inclusion
Signs and Symptoms
Visual Hallucinations
Progressive Dementia
Fluctuating Cognition
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Parkinsonism
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
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3 mins
Parkinson's Disease Interventions
Medications
Levodopa/Carbidopa (Sinemet)
Entacapone (Comtan)
Selegiline (Eldepryl)
Amantadine (Symmetrel)
Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
Benztropine (Cogentin)
Considerations
Allow Extra Time
Ensure Patient Safety
Surgery As Last Resort
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2 mins
Parkinson's Drugs
Parkinsons Characteristics
Decreased Dopamine
Increased Acetylcholine
Drug Names
BALSA Acronym
Bromocriptine
Amantadine
Levodopa
Selegiline
Antimuscarinics
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2 mins

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