Andrew Shared "Block 8" - 108 Picmonics

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Block 8

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Ages < 15
May Present with Bone Marrow Involvement in Children
Mediastinal Mass in Adolescents
TdT Positive
CALLA Positive
t(12;21) Better Prognosis
Spread to CNS and Testes
Most Responsive to Chemotherapy
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2 mins
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Myeloblasts Increase on Peripheral Smear
Median Onset 60 Years
T 15;17 M3 Subtype
Auer Rods
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a Common Presentation
M5 Gum Infiltration
Responds to Vitamin A
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3 mins
Acyclovir (Zovirax)
Mechanism
Guanosine Analog
Inhibits Viral Replication
Thymidine Kinase Activation
Indications
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
Side Effects (Oral)
Headache
GI Distress
Side Effects (IV)
CNS Toxicity
Nephrotoxicity (Crystalline Nephropathy)
Considerations
Prevents Recurrent Episodes
Slow IV infusion
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2 mins
Adult T Cell Lymphoma
Caused by HTLV 1
Japan, West Africa, Caribbean
Present with cutaneous lesions
Aggressive
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1 min
Alport Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Nephritic
X-linked
Mutation in Type IV Collagen
Diagnosis
Split Basement Membrane
Basket Weave Appearance
Signs and Symptoms
Ocular Disorders
Deafness
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2 mins
Amyloidosis
Primary
Multiple myeloma
Secondary
Tuberculosis (TB)
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Congo red stain
Apple green birefringence
Nephrotic
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2 mins
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Chronic Inflammatory Arthritis
"Bamboo Spine"
HLA-B27
Uveitis
Aortic Regurgitation
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1 min
Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies
Glomerulonephritis
Goodpasture's Disease
Linear immunofluorescence
Hemoptysis
Hematuria
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1 min
Anticentromere Antibodies
Autoimmune Disorders
CREST Syndrome (Limited Scleroderma)
Diffuse Scleroderma
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49 secs
Aspirin
Indications
Fever
Pain and Headache
Cardiovascular Disease (CAD)
Mechanism of Action
Irreversible inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2
Suppress Thromboxanes and Prostaglandins
NSAID
Side Effects
Reye's Syndrome
Tinnitus
Peptic Ulceration
Mixed Acidosis/Alkalosis
Nephropathy
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2 mins
Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)
Mechanism
Inhibits Platelet Aggregation
NSAID
Indications
Thrombotic Event Prevention
General Pain
Inflammatory Conditions
Fever
Side Effects
Pancytopenia
GI Ulcers
Bleeding
Considerations
Withhold Before Surgery 7-10 Days
Reye's Syndrome
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2 mins
Auer Rods
Azurophilic granular needles in leukemic blasts
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
All-trans Retinoic Acid (Vitamin A)
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1 min
Azathioprine (Imuran)
Mechanism
Antimetabolite
Prodrug of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)
Inhibits Synthesis of Nucleic Acids
Indications
Autoimmune Disorders
Kidney Transplantation
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Increased Toxicity with Allopurinol Use
Pancreatitis
Malignancy
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3 mins
Berger's Disease (IgA Nephropathy)
Nephritic
IgA Nephropathy
Immune Complex Deposit in Mesangium
Increased Synthesis of IgA
Most Common Cause of Nephritic Syndrome
Overlapping Features with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
Presents with Pharyngitis, URI or Acute Gastroenteritis
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1 min
Bernard-Soulier Syndrome
Mechanism
Autosomal Recessive
Deficiency of Glycoprotein Ib (GpIb) Receptor
Symptoms
Mucosal Membrane Bleeding
Menorrhagia
Easy Bruising
Labs
Large Platelets
Increased Bleeding Time
No Platelet Agglutination with Ristocetin
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3 mins
Beta Thalassemia
Mechanism
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Mediterranean Populations
Decreased Beta-Globin
Beta-Thalassemia Minor
Increased HbA2
No Intervention
Beta-thalassemia Major
Blood Transfusions
Hemochromatosis
Crew-cut on Skull X-Ray
Diagnosis
Electrophoresis
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2 mins
Buerger's Disease
Pathophysiology
Thromboangiitis Obliterans
Segmental Inflammation
Strong Association with Smoking
Signs and Symptoms
Superficial Nodular Phlebitis
Raynaud's Phenomenon
Autoamputation
Treatment
Smoking Cessation
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2 mins
Burkitt's Lymphoma
Adolescents or young adults
C-myc gene moves next to heavy chain Ig gene
T 8;14
Starry sky appearance
Sheets of lymphocytes with interspersed macrophages
Jaw lesion in endemic (African) form
Pelvis or abdomen in non endemic form (American form)
Associated with EBV
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2 mins
Carboprost (Hemabate)
Mechanism
Prostaglandin F2-alpha Analog
Smooth Muscle Contraction
Indications
Postpartum Hemorrhage
Abortion
Side Effects
GI Distress
Hypertension
Fever
Bronchoconstriction
Considerations
Identify Cause of Fever
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2 mins
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Signs and Symptoms
Age > 60 Years
B Cell Neoplasm
Smudge Cells
Often Asymptomatic
Cold IgM Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Warm IgG Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Richter's Transformation
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3 mins

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