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> 145 mEq/L Na+
Change in LOC
Dry Flushed Skin
Hypotonic Solutions (0.225% or 0.45% NaCl)
< 135 mEq Na+
Nausea and Vomiting
Confusion / Lethargy
Reduce Diuretic Dosage
Fluid Excess Hyponatremia
Fluid Deficit Hyponatremia
Hypertonic Solution (3% or 5% NaCl)
< 3.5 mEq/L
IV K+ Infusion at 5-10 mEq/hr
Give Orally with Food
Monitor Respiratory Status
> 5.0 mEq/L K+
Tall, Peaked T Waves
Infusion of Glucose and Insulin
Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
< 8.5 mg/dL Ca2+
Decreased Bone Density
Oral and IV Replacement of Ca2+
> 10.5 mg/dL Ca2+
No Calcium Intake
Loop Diuretics instead of Thiazide Diuretics
Increased Risk for Renal Calculi
Decreased Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTRs)
IV Calcium Gluconate
Avoid Antacids and Laxatives containing Mg2+
Increased Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTRs)
Foods High in Magnesium
Normal Electrolyte Lab Values
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
135 to 145 mEq/L
95 to 105 mEq/L
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