Allyson Shared "hematology 2" - 32 Picmonics

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hematology 2

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Ages < 15
May Present with Bone Marrow Involvement in Children
Mediastinal Mass in Adolescents
TdT Positive
CALLA Positive
t(12;21) Better Prognosis
Spread to CNS and Testes
Most Responsive to Chemotherapy
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2 mins
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Myeloblasts Increase on Peripheral Smear
Median Onset 60 Years
T 15;17 M3 Subtype
Auer Rods
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a Common Presentation
M5 Gum Infiltration
Responds to Vitamin A
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3 mins
Adult T Cell Lymphoma
Caused by HTLV 1
Japan, West Africa, Caribbean
Present with cutaneous lesions
Aggressive
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1 min
Bleomycin
Indications
Testicular Cancer
Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Mechanism of Action
Induces Free Radical Formation
Breaks in DNA Strands
Side Effects
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Skin Changes
Mucositis
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1 min
Burkitt's Lymphoma
Adolescents or young adults
C-myc gene moves next to heavy chain Ig gene
T 8;14
Starry sky appearance
Sheets of lymphocytes with interspersed macrophages
Jaw lesion in endemic (African) form
Pelvis or abdomen in non endemic form (American form)
Associated with EBV
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2 mins
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Signs and Symptoms
Age > 60 Years
B Cell Neoplasm
Smudge Cells
Often Asymptomatic
Cold IgM Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Warm IgG Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
Richter's Transformation
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3 mins
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Age 30 to 90 Years
BCR-ABL
9;22 Translocation
Philadelphia Chromosome
Tyrosine Kinase
Low Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK-P)
Splenomegaly
Blast Crisis can Accelerate and Transform to AML or ALL
Imatinib (Gleevec)
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2 mins
Cyclophosphamide
Mechanism
Requires Bioactivation by Liver
Cross-links DNA
Guanine N7 Position
Indications
Autoimmune Disorders
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Solid Tumors
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Hemorrhagic Cystitis
Prevent with Mesna
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3 mins
Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma
Epidemiology
Most Common Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Usually in Older Adults
20% in Children
Features
May be Mature T Cell in Origin
Derives from Germinal Center
GI Tract and Brain
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2 mins
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
Indications
Solid Tumors
Lymphomas and Leukemias
Mechanism
Free Radical Production
Intercalates DNA
Prevents Double Helix from Sealing
Side Effect
Cardiotoxicity
Dexrazoxane Decreases Toxicity
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1 min
Follicular Lymphoma
Derives from Germinal Center
Occurs in adults
T14;18
BCL 2 overexpression
BCL 2 inhibits apoptosis
Indolent
Generalized lymphadenopathy
Bone marrow involvement
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2 mins
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Pathophysiology
Mature B Cell Tumor
Signs and Symptoms
Splenomegaly
Diagnosis
Flow Cytometry
Cells Have Filamentous Hair-Like Projections
Stains TRAP Positive
Dry Tap on Bone Marrow Aspiration
Treatment
Cladribine
Pentostatin
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2 mins
Hodgkin Lymphoma Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Reed-Sternberg Cells
Binucleate
Owl's Eyes Appearance
CD 15 and CD 30
B Cell Origin
Bimodal Age Distribution
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2 mins
Hodgkin Lymphoma Signs & Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Localized Single Group of Lymph Nodes
Contiguous Spread
Constitutional B Symptoms
Low-Grade Fever
Night Sweats
Weight Loss
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2 mins
Imatinib (Gleevec)
Indications
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Inhibitor of BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase
Caused by Philadelphia Chromosome
GI Stromal Tumors
Inhibitor of C-kit Tyrosine Kinase
Toxicity
Fluid Retention
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1 min
Leukemia Assessment
Cause
Immature WBCs
Assessment
Recurrent Infections
Easy Bruising
Bleeding
Anemia
Fatigue
Weight Loss
Bone Pain
Considerations
May Have Normal or High WBC Count
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2 mins
Leukemia Interventions
Diagnosis
Bone Marrow Aspiration
X-Rays
Interventions
Chemotherapy
Bleeding Precautions
Neutropenic Precautions
Strict Asepsis
Bone Marrow Transplant
Blood Transfusions
Monitor Temperature Elevations
Adequate Nutrition
Imatinib (Gleevec) for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
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3 mins
Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Older Males
Activation of Cyclin D Gene
T 11;14
CD5
Poor Prognosis
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54 secs
Methotrexate
Indications
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cancer
Medical Abortion
Mechanism
Folic Acid Analog
Inhibits Dihydrofolate Reductase
Side Effects
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Myelosuppression is Treated with Leucovorin Rescue (Folinic Acid)
Macrocytic Anemia
Hepatitis
Teratogenic
Mucositis
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1 min
Multiple Myeloma Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Monoclonal Plasma Cell Cancer
Clock Face Chromatin
Diagnosis
M Spike on Protein Electrophoresis
Increased IgG and IgA
Fried Egg Appearance (BM Biopsy)
Rouleaux Formation
Stacked RBC's
Bence Jones Protein
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2 mins

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