Jay Shared "DIT Q&A" - 14 Picmonics

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DIT Q&A

K+ Sparing Diuretics
Indications
CHF and Hypertension
Hypokalemia
Hyperaldosteronism
Mechanism of Action
Collecting Tubule
Spironolactone
Competitive Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist
Amiloride and Triamterene
Block Na+ Channels
Side Effects
Hyperkalemia
Gynecomastia
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2 mins
TNF-Alpha Inhibitor Drugs and Complications
Etanercept
Decoy TNF- Alpha receptor
Anti-TNF- Alpha antibody
Adalimumab
Infliximab
Complications
Increased risk of infection
Predispose to Tuberculosis (TB) reactivation
Order Baseline PPD- skin test
Quantiferon Gold In-Tube
Order Chest X-Ray
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2 mins
Sulfonamides Mechanisms
Bacteriostatic
Gram-Positive
Gram-Negative
Nocardia
Chlamydia
PABA antimetabolites
Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase
Sulfamethoxazole
Sulfisoxazole
Sulfadiazine
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1 min
Restrictive Lung Diseases
Poor Breathing Mechanics
Interstitial Lung Diseases
Goodpasture's Syndrome
Eosinophilic Granuloma
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis
Sarcoidosis
Pneumoconiosis
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Drug Toxicity
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome
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2 mins
Middle Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis upper limb and face
Contralateral loss of sensation of upper limb and face
Affects Wernicke's area and Broca's area
Aphasia if Lesion in Dominant (Left) Hemisphere
Hemineglect if lesion in nondominant (right) hemisphere
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1 min
Circle of Willis
Characteristics
Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) Supplies Motor/Sensory Parts of the Cortex for Lower Extremities
Anterior Communicating Artery (Acomm) Connects ACA to ACA
Internal Carotid Arteries (ICA)
Middle Cerebral Arteries (MCA) Supply Cortex for Upper Limbs and Face
Posterior Communicating Artery (Pcomm) Connects ICA to PCA
Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA) Supply Occipital Cortex
Basilar Artery Supplies Medulla, Pons, and PCA
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3 mins
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Contralateral paralysis of lower limb
Contralateral loss of sensation in lower limb
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1 min
CNS Stimulants
Indications
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Obesity
Mechanism of Action
Increase Catecholamines at Synaptic Cleft
Increase Norepinephrine
Increase Dopamine
Drug Names
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Methamphetamine
Side Effect
Potential for Abuse
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56 secs
Pneumocystis jirovecii
Fungi
AIDS/Immunocompromised
Fever
Hypoxemia
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Biopsy
Methenamine Silver Stain
Saucer/cup shaped yeast forms
Diffuse interstitial pneumonia CXR
TMP-SMX
Start prophylaxis when CD4 drops under 200
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1 min
HIV Prophylaxis Medications
CD4+ < 200
TMP-SMX
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
CD4+ < 100 Susceptible to Toxoplasma Gondii
CD4+ < 50
Mycobacterium Avium and Intracellulare
Azithromycin If Delayed Therapy
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2 mins
Amphetamine Antidote
Antidote
Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)
Acidify Urine
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34 secs
CNS Stimulant Indications
Drug Names
Amphetamine
Methlyphenidate (Ritalin)
Mechanism of Action
Increased Norepinephrine
Increased Dopamine
Indications
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Obesity
Narcolepsy
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1 min
Trimethoprim
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Inhibits Bacterial Dihydrofolate Reductase
Causes Sequential Block of Folate Synthesis
Used in Combination with Sulfamethoxazole
Combination Used For Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Indications
Shigella
Salmonella
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia
Side Effects
Decrease in Red and White Blood Cells
Alleviated with Leucovorin Rescue
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2 mins
Cromolyn (Mast Cell Stabilizers)
Mechanism
Mast Cell Stabilizer
Indications
Asthma Prophylaxis
Bronchial Inflammation
Allergic Rhinitis
Side Effects
Cough
Bronchospasm
Consideration
Fixed Schedule Administration
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2 mins

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