Melita Shared "Foundation Exam 2" - 12 Picmonics

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Foundation Exam 2

Hypokalemia
Assessment
< 3.5 mEq/L
Muscle Weakness
Arrhythmia
U Wave
Ileus
Hyporeflexia
Interventions
IV K+ Infusion at 5-10 mEq/hr
Give Orally with Food
Nursing Considerations
Monitor Respiratory Status
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3 mins
Hyperkalemia
Assessment
> 5.0 mEq/L K+
Abdominal Cramps
Muscle Weakness
Diarrhea
Arrhythmia
Tall, Peaked T Waves
Interventions
IV Calcium
Infusion of Glucose and Insulin
Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
Kayexalate
Dialysis
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Hypocalcemia
Assessment
< 8.5 mg/dL Ca2+
Decreased Bone Density
Muscle Spasms
Tetany
Chvostek's Sign
Trousseau's Sign
Increased DTR
ECG Changes
QT Prolongation
Considerations
Oral and IV Replacement of Ca2+
Seizure Precautions
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2 mins
Hypercalcemia Causes
Two CHIMPANZEES Acronym
Thyroid Disorders
Calcium Supplements
Hyperparathyroidism
Iatrogenic (Drugs, immobility)
Milk-Alkali Syndrome
Paget's Disease of Bone
Acromegaly or Addison's Disease
Neoplasms
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Excessive Vitamin A
Excessive Vitamin D
Sarcoidosis
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2 mins
Hyponatremia
Assessment
< 135 mEq Na+
Nausea and Vomiting
Decreased LOC
Confusion / Lethargy
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Assess Airway
Reduce Diuretic Dosage
Fluid Excess Hyponatremia
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Fluid Restriction
Fluid Deficit Hyponatremia
Hypertonic Solution (3% or 5% NaCl)
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2 mins
Hypernatremia
Assessment
> 145 mEq/L Na+
Change in LOC
Extreme Thirst
Orthostatic Hypotension
Dry Flushed Skin
Muscle Twitching
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Prevent Dehydration
Hypotonic Solutions (0.225% or 0.45% NaCl)
Sodium Restriction
Diuretics
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2 mins
Hypomagnesemia
Assessment
Confusion
Increased Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTRs)
Neuromuscular Irritability
Seizures
Muscle Cramps
Tremors
Insomnia
Tachycardia
Interventions
Magnesium Sulfate
Foods High in Magnesium
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1 min
Hypermagnesemia
Assessment
Flushing
Lethargy
Muscle Weakness
Decreased Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTRs)
Decreased Respirations
Bradycardia
Hypotension
Interventions
Dialysis
IV Calcium Gluconate
Diuretics
Avoid Antacids and Laxatives containing Mg2+
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2 mins
Standard Precautions
Hand Hygiene
Wash In / Wash Out
Alcohol-Based Hand Rub
Hand Washing
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Gown
Face Mask
Goggles/Face Shield
Gloves
Donning and Removing PPE
Discard Sharps in Puncture-Resistant Container
Cough Etiquette
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2 mins
Contact Precautions
Private Room
Wash In / Wash Out
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Gloves
Gown
Limit Time Patient Leaves Room
Leave Equipment In Room
Special Linen Handling
Same Pathogen, Same Room
History of Contact Isolation
Preventative Education
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2 mins
Droplet-Airborne Precautions
Private Room
Droplet
Droplets Larger than 5 Microns
Being Within 3 Feet of Patient
Surgical Mask with Face Shield
Type of Infection or Condition
Airborne
Airborne Infection Isolation Room (AIIR)
Droplets Smaller than 5 Microns
N95 Respirator
Type of Infection or Condition
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2 mins
Aseptic Technique
Invasive Procedures
Skin Integrity Broken
Sterility
Hands Up for Scrubbing
Keep Objects in View
Only Sterile Objects in Field
Only Sterile Touches Sterile
Contamination
Edges of Sterile Field
If Sterility Questioned
If Wet or Prolonged Exposure to Air
Considerations
Never Leave Sterile Area
PPE Order
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2 mins

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