Whitney Shared "Pathophysiology Part 1" - 12 Picmonics

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Pathophysiology Part 1

Blood Acid-Base Control
Characteristics
In a State of Acidemia
Medullary Chemoreceptors Control Ventilation Rate
Expulsion of CO2 through Lungs Increases pH
Bicarbonate Reabsorption from the Kidney Increases pH
Kidney Excretion of H+ Increases pH
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2 mins
How to Interpret Acid Base Disorders
pH, pCO2, HCO3 (Bicarbonate)
Step 1
pH
Acidosis
Alkalosis
Step 2
pCO2
Opposite Direction As pH
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Step 3
HCO3 (Bicarbonate)
Same Direction As pH
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
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3 mins
Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
Characteristics
Acetyl-CoA + Oxaloacetate
Citric Acid
Isocitric Acid
Produces NADH
Alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid
Produces NADH
Succinyl CoA
Produces GTP
Succinate
Produces FADH2
Fumarate
Uses Water
Malate
Produces NADH
Oxaloacetate
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4 mins
Metabolic Alkalosis
Diuretic use
Vomiting
Antacid
Hyperaldosteronism
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26 secs
Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoventilation
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Barbiturates Depress Central Respiratory Center of Brain
Opioids Depress Central Respiratory Center of the Brain
Airway Obstruction
Respiratory Muscle Weakness/Paralysis
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3 mins
Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation
High Altitude
Aspirin
Restrictive Lung Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy
Progesterone
Rib Fracture
Anxiety
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1 min
Muscle Types
Characteristics
Skeletal Muscle
Somatic Nervous System
Striated
Multinucleate
Cardiac Muscle
Autonomic Nervous System
Myogenic
Gap Junctions
Uninucleate
Smooth Muscle
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2 mins
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Initiation
Somatic Motor Neuron Releases Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine Causes Sodium Influx
Cell Reaches All-or-Nothing Threshold
Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Open
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Causes Calcium Flood
Calcium Flood Enters Myofibrils
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1 min
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Action
Characteristics
Calcium Binds Troponin
Active Site Exposed
Many Mitochondria Produce ATP
Myosin Head Binds
Power Stroke
Myosin Head Releases Active Site
ATP Consumed
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1 min
Skin Functions
Characteristics
Characteristics
Characteristics
Characteristics
Characteristics
Thermoregulation
Thermoregulation
Thermoregulation
Thermoregulation
Thermoregulation
Protection
Protection
Protection
Protection
Protection
Innate Immune Protection
Innate Immune Protection
Innate Immune Protection
Innate Immune Protection
Innate Immune Protection
Synthesize Vitamin D
Synthesize Vitamin D
Synthesize Vitamin D
Synthesize Vitamin D
Synthesize Vitamin D
Water and Salt Excretion
Water and Salt Excretion
Water and Salt Excretion
Water and Salt Excretion
Water and Salt Excretion
Dilated Capillaries are a Blood Reservoir
Dilated Capillaries are a Blood Reservoir
Dilated Capillaries are a Blood Reservoir
Dilated Capillaries are a Blood Reservoir
Dilated Capillaries are a Blood Reservoir
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2 mins
Whole Blood Composition
Characteristics
Plasma
Electrolytes And Other Solutes
Proteins
Albumin
Fibrinogen
Globulins
Water
Formed Elements
Buffy Coat
White Blood Cells (WBC)
Platelets
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
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2 mins
pH - Blood and Urine Lab Value
Blood
7.35 - 7.45
Urine
4.0 - 8.0
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1 min

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