LauraBelle Shared "Test 5 - Path" - 57 Picmonics

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Test 5 - Path

Acute Pancreatitis Causes
"GET SMASHHED" Mnemonic
Gallstones
(Ethanol) Alcohol
Trauma
Steroids
Mumps
Autoimmune
Scorpion Sting
Hypercalcemia
Hypertriglyceridemia > 1000
ERCP
Drugs
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1 min
Acute Pancreatitis Disease
Autodigestion of Pancreas by Pancreatic Enzymes
Symptoms
Epigastric Abdominal Pain Radiating to Back
Anorexia
Nausea
Labs
Increased Amylase and Lipase
Complications
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
Infection
Hypocalcemia
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)
Pancreatic Pseudocyst
Hemorrhage
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3 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Mechanisms
Autosomal Recessive
CFTR chromosome 7
Cl- channel defect
Decreased chloride secretion
Increased Na and water reabsorption
Increased Na and Cl in sweat
Dehydration of mucous layers
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2 mins
Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Sweat chloride test > 60 mmol/L
Meconium Ileus
Treatment
N-acetylcysteine
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Pulmonary Maintenance
Lung transplant
Vitamin Replacement
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1 min
Cystic Fibrosis Symptoms and Complications
Recurrent Pulmonary Infections
Chronic Bronchitis
Nasal Polyps
Pancreatic Insufficiency
Intestinal Obstruction
Malabsorption and Diarrhea
Vitamin Deficiencies
Chronic Hepatic Disease
Infertility in Males
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1 min
Hepatitis A
Characteristics
Picornavirus
4 Week Incubation Period
Fecal-oral
Day Care Centers
Travel to Developing Countries
Signs and Symptoms
Usually Asymptomatic
Acute Disease
Jaundice
Fever
Vomiting
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2 mins
Hepatitis B Virus Disease
Can turn chronic
< 10% of adults become chronic carriers
90% of newborns become chronic carriers
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Polyarteritis nodosa
Serum sickness like syndrome
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2 mins
Hepatitis B Virus Characteristics
Hepadnavirus
Enveloped
Circular
Partially Double-stranded DNA
Has Reverse Transcriptase
IV Drug Use
Sex
Maternal fetal routes
3 month incubation period
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2 mins
Hepatitis C
Characteristics
Enveloped
RNA Virus
Flavivirus
Icosahedral
SS positive Linear
Clinical Features
Most Cases are Due to IV Drug Use
Turns to Chronic Hepatitis in Over 70% of Cases
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Most Common Indication for Liver Transplantation
Associated With Type I MPGN
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
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2 mins
Hemochromatosis Pathophysiology
Pathophysiology
Hemosiderin Deposition
Autosomal Recessive
HLA-A3
Secondary to Transfusion Therapy
Increase Iron
Increase Ferritin
Increased Transferrin Saturation
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2 mins
Hemochromatosis Signs and Symptoms
Signs and Symptoms
Micronodular Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Diabetes
Bronze Skin Coloring
CHF
Arthropathy
Testicular Atrophy
Impotence
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2 mins
Wilson's Disease Pathophysiology
Autosomal Recessive
Mutation in ATP7B gene
Chromosome 13
Decrease in Ceruloplasmin
Inadequate copper excretion
Liver
Brain
Kidney
Cornea
Joints
Treat with Penicillamine
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2 mins
Wilson's Disease Symptoms
Cirrhosis
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Basal Ganglia Degeneration
Dementia
Dyskinesia
Asterixis
Kayser-Fleischer Rings
Slit Lamp Exam
Hemolytic Anemia
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2 mins
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis) Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Positive Antimitochondrial Antibodies
Increased Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK-P)
Increased Cholesterol
Treatment
Ursodiol
Liver Transplant
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2 mins
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)
Mechanism
Autoimmune Destruction of Bile Ducts
Intrahepatic
Cholestasis
Occurs in Middle-Aged Females
Signs and Symptoms
Fatigue
Pruritus
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Hepatomegaly
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3 mins
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Mechanisms
Mechanism
Unknown Mechanism
"Onion Skin" Fibrosis
"Beading" of Bile Ducts
Symptoms
Pruritus
Hepatosplenomegaly
Jaundice
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2 mins
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Labs and Treatment
Labs
Increased Conjugated Bilirubin
Increased ALK-P
Increased IgM
Associated Pathologies
Ulcerative Colitis
Cholangiocarcinoma
Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis
Treatment
Liver Transplant
Stent
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2 mins
Intraductal Papilloma
Presentation
Bloody nipple discharge
Women 20-40 years old
Mechanism
Small tumor in lactiferous ducts
Occurs Centrally
Occurs Peripherally
Increased malignancy
Diagnosis
Too Small to Palpate
Galactogram biopsy
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1 min
Fibroadenoma
Most Common Benign Breast Tumor
Stromal Tumor
Presentation
Women under 40
Small, firm mass
Sharp Edges
Increased tenderness and size with Estrogen
Management
Biopsy
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1 min
Phyllodes Tumor
Presentation
Common in 40's
Large Palpable Mass
Mechanism
Benign
Rarely Malignant
Low-Grade Tumor
Leaf-Like
Stromal Tumor
Treatment
Wide Resection
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2 mins

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