Alison Shared "Big One" - 997 Picmonics

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Big One

Leflunomide
Inhibits dihydroorate dehydrogenase
Reduces de novo pyrimidine synthesis
Reduces activated T cells
Onset of action after 6 weeks
Indications
Inflammatory arthritis
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Side Effects
Teratogen
Rash
Alopecia
Diarrhea
Hepatotoxicity
Bone marrow toxicity
Long half-life
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Hydroxyurea
Mechanism
Inhibits Ribonucleotide Reductase
Decreased DNA Synthesis
S-phase Specific
Indications
Melanoma
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Sickle Cell Disease
Through Increased HbF (Fetal Hemoglobin)
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
GI Distress
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2 mins
Fluorouracil (5-FU)
Mechanism
Antimetabolite
"Thymine-less Death"
Indications
Slow-growing Solid Tumors
Co-administered with Leucovorin for Stomach Cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma (Topical)
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Mucositis
Severe Diarrhea
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3 mins
Methotrexate
Indications
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Cancer
Medical Abortion
Mechanism
Folic Acid Analog
Inhibits Dihydrofolate Reductase
Side Effects
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Myelosuppression is Treated with Leucovorin Rescue (Folinic Acid)
Macrocytic Anemia
Hepatitis
Teratogenic
Mucositis
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1 min
Azathioprine (Imuran)
Mechanism
Antimetabolite
Prodrug of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)
Inhibits Synthesis of Nucleic Acids
Indications
Autoimmune Disorders
Kidney Transplantation
Side Effects
Myelosuppression
Increased Toxicity with Allopurinol Use
Pancreatitis
Malignancy
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3 mins
Ribavirin
Mechanism
Hypermutation in RNA Viruses
Inhibits Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase
Indications
Hepatitis C
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Side Effects
Hemolytic Anemia
Teratogen
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1 min
Trimethoprim
Mechanism of Action
Bacteriostatic
Inhibits Bacterial Dihydrofolate Reductase
Causes Sequential Block of Folate Synthesis
Used in Combination with Sulfamethoxazole
Combination Used For Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
Indications
Shigella
Salmonella
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia
Side Effects
Decrease in Red and White Blood Cells
Alleviated with Leucovorin Rescue
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2 mins
Gout Treatment
Acute (Acute-angle)
NSAIDs
Glucocorticoids
Colchicine
Impairs Leukocyte Chemotaxis
Chronic Gout (Crone Goat)
Inhibit Xanthine Oxidase
Allopurinol
Febuxostat
Inhibit Reabsorption of Uric Acid
Probenecid
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1 min
Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
Adenosine to Inosine
Excess ATP
Inhibition of Ribonucleotide Reductase
Prevents DNA Synthesis
Decreases B Cells and T Cells
Major cause of SCID
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1 min
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
X-linked Recessive
Absence of HGPRT
Hypoxanthine to IMP
Guanine to GMP
Excess uric acid
Gout
Retardation
Self-mutilation
Choreoathetosis
PRPP is increased
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2 mins
Xeroderma Pigmentosum
Pathophysiology
Defective Nucleotide Excision Repair
Complications
Extreme Light Sensitivity
Dark Freckles on Skin
Pale, Dry Skin
Susceptible to UV Rays A and B
Corneal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Skin Cancer
Some Patients Present Progressive Neurodegeneration
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2 mins
Lynch Syndrome (Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer)
Characteristics
Autosomal Dominant
Defective DNA Mismatch Repair
80% Risk of Colon Cancer Development
Proximal (Right) Colon
Type II associated with Endometrial, Ovarian and Skin Cancers
3-2-1 Rule
3 Relatives with Colon Cancer
Occurs Across 2 Generations
1 Relative Diagnosed < 50 Years Old
Treatment
Frequent Screening
Colectomy
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3 mins
Rifampin
Tuberculosis (TB)
Blocks RNA Polymerization
Haemophilus influenzae Type B
Leprosy
Meningitis
P450 inducer
Red-orange urine
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55 secs
Dactinomycin (Actinomycin D)
Indications
Wilms' Tumor
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Ewing's Sarcoma
Gestational Trophoblastic Malignancy
Mechanism
Intercalates DNA
Side Effect
Myelosuppression
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2 mins
Cell Cycle Phases
Characteristics
G0 Phase
Growth Arrest
G1 Phase
G1 Check By Rb And p53
S Phase
DNA Mismatch Repair
DNA Synthesis
G2 Phase
G2 Check
M Phase
Mitosis And Cytokinesis
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3 mins
I-Cell Disease (inclusion cell disease/mucolipidosis type II)
I-Cell Disease
Inherited lysosomal storage disorder
Defect in N-acetylglucosaminyl-1-phosphotransferase
Failure of the Golgi to phosphorylate mannose residues (ie,mannose-6-phosphate) on glycoproteins
Proteins are secreted extracellularly rather than delivered to lysosomes
Coarse facial features
Clouded corneas
Restricted joint movement
High plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes
Often fatal in childhood
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Thiabendazole
Thiabendazole
Thiabendazole is given to treat intestinal parasites
Thiabendazole treats nematodes.
Thiabendazole treats trichinosis.
Mebendazole
Mebendazole
Cestode (Tapeworm)
Taenia Solium
Echinococcus Granulosus
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Kartagener Syndrome (Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia)
inheritance pattern
Autosomal Recessive
pathogenesis
Immotile Cilia Due to a Dynein Arm Defect
Symptoms
Decreased Male and Female Fertility
Immotile Sperm
Dysfunctional Fallopian Tube Cilia
Increased Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy
Bronchiectasis
Recurrent Sinusitis
Chronic Ear Infections
Conductive Hearing Loss
Situs Inversus (Dextrocardia on Chest X-Ray)
SCreening
Decreased Nasal Nitric Oxide Used as Screening Test
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5 mins
Collagen Types
Mnemonic: Be (So Totally) Cool, Read Books
Type I Collagen
Bone
Skin
Tendon
Type II Collagen
Cartilage
Type III Collagen
Reticulin - skin
Blood vessels
Uterus
Type IV Collagen
Basement membrane
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Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Pathophysiology
Autosomal Dominant
Decreased Type I Collagen Production
Symptoms
Phenotypically Diverse
Brittle Bone Disease
Fractures from Minimal Trauma
Confused with Child Abuse
Hearing Loss
Dental Imperfections
Blue Sclera
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1 min

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