Jake Shared "CSI Quiz 1" - 22 Picmonics

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CSI Quiz 1

Pioglitazone (Thiazolidinediones)
-glitazones Suffix
Mechanism
Binds PPAR-Gamma
Decreases Insulin Resistance
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Weight Gain
Heart Failure
Myalgia
Hypoglycemia
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
Increased Risk of Bladder Cancer
Increased Fracture Risk in Women
Monitor Liver Enzymes
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2 mins
Exenatide (Byetta)
Mechanism
Incretin Mimetic
GLP-1 Synthetic Analog
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Nausea and Vomiting
Diarrhea
Thyroid Cancer
Pancreatitis
Renal Failure
Considerations
(Give Exenatide) One Hour After Other Medications
Adjunct Therapy
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3 mins
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
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2 mins
Diabetes Insipidus Assessment
Polyuria
Nocturia
Low Specific Gravity (USG)
Polydipsia
Dehydration
Hypotension
Tachycardia
Confusion
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2 mins
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Diagnosis and Labs
Diagnosis
Blood glucose Increased > 250 mg/dL
Anion gap metabolic acidosis
Decreased pH < 7.3
Decreased serum bicarbonate < 18
Plasma ketones
Other Labs
Hyperkalemia
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1 min
SGLT2 Inhibitors
"-gliflozin" Suffix
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Glucose Reabsorption in Proximal Tubule
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Side Effects
Weight Loss
Lower Blood Pressure
Hyperkalemia
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
Considerations
Contraindicated in Chronic Kidney Disease
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1 min
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)
Used for Diabetes Screening
Fasting State
Samples Drawn
Baseline
Normal < 100 mg/dL
30 and 60 Minutes
Normal < 200 mg/dL
120 Minutes
Normal < 140 mg/dL
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2 mins
Diabetes Assessment
Assessment Type 1
Juvenile Onset
Absent Insulin Production
Ketosis Prone
Assessment Type 2
Adult Onset
Insulin Resistance
Obesity
Gestational Diabetes
Onset During Pregnancy
Glucose Intolerance
Complications
Retinopathy
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Nephropathy
Neuropathy
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2 mins
Metformin
Indications
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Mechanism of Action
Decreased Gluconeogenesis
Increased Insulin Sensitivity
Side Effects
Lactic Acidosis
GI Distress
Weight Loss
B12 Deficiency
Contraindication
GFR < 30 ml/min
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2 mins
Hypernatremia
Assessment
> 145 mEq/L Na+
Change in LOC
Extreme Thirst
Orthostatic Hypotension
Dry Flushed Skin
Muscle Twitching
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Prevent Dehydration
Hypotonic Solutions (0.225% or 0.45% NaCl)
Sodium Restriction
Diuretics
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2 mins
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs and Symptoms
Kussmaul respirations
Dehydration
Abdominal Pain
Nausea/vomiting
Psychosis
Fruity breath Odor
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Treatment
Initial Management
IV Normal Saline
Regular Insulin Drip
Subsequent Management (correction of electrolytes)
Potassium (K+)
Glucose
Treat Underlying Cause
Monitoring
Venous pH
Serum Bicarbonate (HCO3)
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1 min
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
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2 mins
Acarbose (Precose) and Miglitol (Glyset) (Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors)
Mechanisms
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors
Delays Absorption of Carbohydrates
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Flatulence
Diarrhea
Anemia
Cramps
Considerations
Monitor LFTs
Oral Glucose for Hypoglycemia
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2 mins
Sitagliptin (Januvia) and Saxagliptin (Onglyza) (DPP-4 Inhibitors)
-gliptin Suffix
Mechanisms
DPP-4 Inhibitor
Increases Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Pancreatitis
Upper Respiratory Infection and Inflammation
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Considerations
Used as Add-on Agents
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2 mins
Lewy Body Dementia
Pathophysiology
Unknown Etiology
Decreased Acetylcholine
Alpha-synuclein Defect
Eosinophilic Cytoplasmic Inclusion
Signs and Symptoms
Visual Hallucinations
Progressive Dementia
Fluctuating Cognition
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Parkinsonism
Treatment
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
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3 mins
Causes of Dementia
Reversible Causes
Intoxication or Medications
Depression
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Metabolic Conditions
Irreversible Causes
Lewy Body Dementia
Prion Disease
Pick's Disease
AIDS Dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
Multi-infarct (Vascular) Dementia
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2 mins
Hyponatremia
Assessment
< 135 mEq Na+
Nausea and Vomiting
Decreased LOC
Confusion / Lethargy
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Assess Airway
Reduce Diuretic Dosage
Fluid Excess Hyponatremia
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Fluid Restriction
Fluid Deficit Hyponatremia
Hypertonic Solution (3% or 5% NaCl)
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2 mins
Common Causes of Meningitis: Children (6 Months - 6 Years)
Enteroviruses
Neisseria meningitidis
Haemophilus influenzae Type B
Streptococcus pneumoniae
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2 mins
Thiazide Diuretics
Early Distal Tubule
Inhibits NaCl Reabsorption
Sulfa Drug
Hyperglycemia
Hyperlipidemia
Hypercalcemia
Hyperuricemia
Hyponatremia
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis
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2 mins

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