Jayda Shared "Test 1" - 39 Picmonics

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Test 1

Diabetes Assessment
Assessment Type 1
Juvenile Onset
Absent Insulin Production
Ketosis Prone
Assessment Type 2
Adult Onset
Insulin Resistance
Obesity
Gestational Diabetes
Onset During Pregnancy
Glucose Intolerance
Complications
Retinopathy
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Nephropathy
Neuropathy
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2 mins
Diabetes Interventions
Early Diagnosis
Insulin
Oral Hypoglycemics
Glucose Monitoring
Routine Exercise
Diabetic Diet
Monitor for Complications
Insulin Therapy
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
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2 mins
Diabetes Education
Self-Monitoring (Blood Glucose)
SubQ Injection Technique
Lifestyle Changes
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia
Sick Day Care
Foot Care
Exercise Therapy
Medication
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1 min
Insulin
Rapid Acting
Insulin Lispro (Humalog)
Insulin Aspart (Novolog)
Insulin Glulisine (Apidra)
Short Acting
Regular Insulin (Humulin R)
Intermediate Acting
Isophane NPH (Humulin N)
Long Acting
Detemir (Levemir)
Glargine (Lantus)
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2 mins
Metformin (Glucophage)
Mechanism
Decrease Glucose Production
Increase Insulin Sensitivity
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Side Effects
GI Distress
Decreased Appetite
Lactic Acidosis
Considerations
IV Contrast
Limit Alcohol Consumption
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2 mins
Chlorpropamide and Tolbutamide (Orinase) (1st Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
1st Generation Sulfonylureas
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Possible Cardiovascular Toxicity
Considerations
Beta-blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid During Pregnancy and Breast Feeding
Avoid Alcohol
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2 mins
Glyburide and Glipizide (2nd Generation Sulfonylureas)
Mechanisms
2nd Generation Sulfonylureas
Blocks Potassium Channels in Beta Cells
Stimulate Release of Insulin
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
More Potent
Beta Blockers Reduce Effects
Avoid Alcohol
Avoid Breastfeeding
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2 mins
Pioglitazone (Thiazolidinediones)
-glitazones Suffix
Mechanism
Binds PPAR-Gamma
Decreases Insulin Resistance
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Weight Gain
Heart Failure
Myalgia
Hypoglycemia
Upper Respiratory Infection
Considerations
Increased Risk of Bladder Cancer
Increased Fracture Risk in Women
Monitor Liver Enzymes
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2 mins
Acarbose (Precose) and Miglitol (Glyset) (Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors)
Mechanisms
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors
Delays Absorption of Carbohydrates
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Flatulence
Diarrhea
Anemia
Cramps
Considerations
Monitor LFTs
Oral Glucose for Hypoglycemia
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2 mins
Repaglinide and Nateglinide (Meglitinides)
Mechanisms
Meglitinides
Increased Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effect
Hypoglycemia
Considerations
Eat Within 30 Minutes
Gemfibrozil Increases Risk of Hypoglycemia
Short Half-Life
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2 mins
Sitagliptin (Januvia) and Saxagliptin (Onglyza) (DPP-4 Inhibitors)
-gliptin Suffix
Mechanisms
DPP-4 Inhibitor
Increases Insulin Release
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Pancreatitis
Upper Respiratory Infection and Inflammation
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Considerations
Used as Add-on Agents
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2 mins
Pramlintide (Symlin)
Mechanism
Synthetic Amylin Analog
Indications
Diabetes Type 1 and 2
Supplement Mealtime Insulin
Side Effects
Nausea
Skin Reactions at Injection Site
Considerations
Hypoglycemia When Combined with Insulin
Delayed Absorption of Oral Drugs
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2 mins
Exenatide (Byetta)
Mechanism
Incretin Mimetic
GLP-1 Synthetic Analog
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Side Effects
Hypoglycemia
Nausea and Vomiting
Diarrhea
Thyroid Cancer
Pancreatitis
Renal Failure
Considerations
(Give Exenatide) One Hour After Other Medications
Adjunct Therapy
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3 mins
Dawn Phenomenon
Cause/Mechanism
Increased Hormone Production
Assessment
Hyperglycemia Upon Awakening
Interventions
Long-Acting Evening Insulin
Change Administration Times
Insulin Pump
Considerations
Closely Monitor Glucose Levels
Between 2-6AM
Limit Carbohydrates Before Bedtime
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2 mins
How to Interpret Acid Base Disorders
pH, pCO2, HCO3 (Bicarbonate)
Step 1
pH
Acidosis
Alkalosis
Step 2
pCO2
Opposite Direction As pH
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Step 3
HCO3 (Bicarbonate)
Same Direction As pH
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
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3 mins
Respiratory Acidosis Assessment
Assessment
Decreased pH < 7.35
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Reduced Respirations
Anxiety
Change in LOC
Tachycardia
Cyanosis
Increased Electrolytes
ECG Changes
Muscle Weakness
Hyporeflexia
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2 mins
Respiratory Alkalosis Assessment
Assessment
Increased pH > 7.45
Decreased PaCO2 < 35 mmHg
Hyperventilation
Brainstem Stimulation
Head Injury
Shock
Lightheadedness
Tingling Lips or Fingers
Trousseau's
Chvostek's Sign
Anxiety
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2 mins
Metabolic Acidosis Assessment
Characteristics
Decreased pH < 7.35
Decreased HCO3 < 22
Signs & Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
CNS Depression
Coma
Hypotension
Arrhythmias
Increased Respirations
Kussmaul Respirations
Flushed, Warm, Dry Skin
Muscle Weakness
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2 mins
Metabolic Alkalosis Assessment
Signs and Symptoms
Increased pH > 7.45
Increased HCO3 > 26
Excitable State
Arrhythmias
Paresthesias
Muscle Cramps
Muscle Weakness
Decreased Respiratory Effort
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1 min
Respiratory Acidosis Interventions
Improve Respiration
Pharmacologic Interventions
Bronchodilators
Respiratory Stimulants
Drug Antagonists
Nonpharmacologic Interventions
Oxygen
Assisted Ventilation
Prevent Complications
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1 min

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