Calvin Shared "Renal/Male Repro" - 114 Picmonics

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Renal/Male Repro

Renal Corpuscle
Characteristics
Arterioles
Glomerulus
Capillaries
Fenestrations
Plasma Solutes and Other Small Molecules Become Ultrafiltrate
Bowman's Capsule Encapsulates Glomerulus
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2 mins
Loop of Henle
Characteristics
Descending Limb
Water Follows Na+
Medullary Hypertonicity
Increased Water Reabsorption
Vasa Recta
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Ascending Limb
Reabsorbs Na+, K+, Cl-
Decreased Concentration of Filtrate
Impermeable to Water
Distal Tubule
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2 mins
Collecting Duct
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorption via Passive Transport
Vasopressin Causes Water reabsorption
Concentrates Filtrate
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2 mins
Fanconi Syndrome Characteristics
Pathophysiology
Resorption Defect in Proximal Tubule
Signs and Symptoms
Hypophosphatemia
Rickets
Osteomalacia
Hypokalemia
Metabolic Acidosis
Type 2 Renal Tubular Acidosis
Treatment
Treat Underlying Disorder
Bicarbonate
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1 min
Fanconi Syndrome Causes
Hereditary Causes
Cystinosis
Dent's Disease
Wilson's Disease
Oculocerebrorenal (Lowe) Syndrome
Galactosemia
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance
Glycogen Storage Diseases
Tyrosinemia
Acquired and Medication Causes
Tenofovir
Heavy Metals
Expired Tetracyclines
Cisplatin
Gentamycin (Aminoglycosides)
Valproate Sodium
Multiple Myeloma
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2 mins
Proximal Tubule
Characteristics
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water Follows Na+
Most Of Glucose Reabsorbed
Most Of Amino Acids Reabsorbed
Bicarbonate Exchanged For H+
Drugs and Toxins Excreted
Filtrate Osmolarity Same As Plasma
Leads To Loop Of Henle
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2 mins
Erythropoietin
Mechanism
Stimulates RBC Production
Indications
Chronic Renal Failure
Anemia
Side Effects
Increased Risk of Thrombosis
Pelvic and Limb Pain
Hypertension
Considerations
Do Not Shake
Monitor Hemoglobin (Hgb) Weekly
May Accelerate Tumor Progression
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2 mins
Vitamin D Metabolism/Mechanism
Mechanism Of Action
Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D2)
Plant Sources
Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3)
Sunlight Conversion in Skin
7-Dehydrocholesterol
Liver Hydroxylation
25-(OH) D (25-hydroxyvitamin D)
Storage Form
Kidney Hydroxylation
1,25-(OH)2 D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D)
Active Form Calcitriol
Absorbs Calcium and Phosphorus in Intestine
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4 mins
Parathyroid Gland
Characteristics
Blood Calcium Sensor
Parathyroid Hormone
Bone Resorption
Blood Calcium Increases
Vitamin D Activation
Calcium Absorption From The Small Intestine
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1 min
Distal Tubule
Characteristics
Hormonally Regulated
Aldosterone Causes Na+ Reabsorption
Na+ Reabsorbed Via Active Transport
Water follows Na+
Parathyroid Hormone Causes Ca2+ Reabsorption
Leads to Collecting Duct
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1 min
Normal Electrolyte Lab Values
Potassium (K+)
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Calcium (Ca2+)
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
Phosphate (PO43–)
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
Magnesium (Mg2+)
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
Sodium (Na+)
135 to 145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl)
95 to 105 mEq/L
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2 mins
Sodium (Na+) Lab Value
135-145 mEq/L
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24 secs
Hyponatremia
Assessment
< 135 mEq Na+
Nausea and Vomiting
Decreased LOC
Confusion / Lethargy
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Assess Airway
Reduce Diuretic Dosage
Fluid Excess Hyponatremia
Mannitol (Osmitrol)
Fluid Restriction
Fluid Deficit Hyponatremia
Hypertonic Solution (3% or 5% NaCl)
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2 mins
Hypernatremia
Assessment
> 145 mEq/L Na+
Change in LOC
Extreme Thirst
Orthostatic Hypotension
Dry Flushed Skin
Muscle Twitching
Seizures
Priority Interventions
Prevent Dehydration
Hypotonic Solutions (0.225% or 0.45% NaCl)
Sodium Restriction
Diuretics
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2 mins
Potassium (K+) Lab Value
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
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20 secs
Hypokalemia
Assessment
< 3.5 mEq/L
Muscle Weakness
Arrhythmia
U Wave
Ileus
Hyporeflexia
Interventions
IV K+ Infusion at 5-10 mEq/hr
Give Orally with Food
Nursing Considerations
Monitor Respiratory Status
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3 mins
Hyperkalemia
Assessment
> 5.0 mEq/L K+
Abdominal Cramps
Muscle Weakness
Diarrhea
Arrhythmia
Tall, Peaked T Waves
Interventions
IV Calcium
Infusion of Glucose and Insulin
Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
Kayexalate
Dialysis
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Calcium (Ca2+) Lab Value
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
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25 secs
Hypocalcemia
Assessment
< 8.5 mg/dL Ca2+
Decreased Bone Density
Muscle Spasms
Tetany
Chvostek's Sign
Trousseau's Sign
Increased DTR
ECG Changes
QT Prolongation
Considerations
Oral and IV Replacement of Ca2+
Seizure Precautions
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2 mins
Hypocalcemia Causes
Hypoalbuminemia
Hypomagnesemia (Less Common Hypermagnesemia)
Hypovitaminosis D
Hypoparathyroidism
Medications
Hyperphosphatemia
Malnutrition
Acute Pancreatitis
Alkalosis
Sepsis
Chronic Kidney Disease
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2 mins

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