Ashley Shared "2/1-2/6" - 49 Picmonics

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2/1-2/6

Sporothrix Schenckii
Characteristics
Fungi
Thermally Dimorphic
Cigar-shaped Yeast Forms
Rose Thorn Prick
Packaging Peat Moss
Signs & Symptoms
Local Pustule or Ulcer
Nodules on Draining Lymphatics
Treatment
Potassium Iodide
Itraconazole
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2 mins
Coccidioidomycosis
Characteristics
Fungi
Dimorphic
Southwest
After earthquakes
Spherule
20-60 um
Signs and Symptoms
Pneumonia
Meningitis
Bone Infection
Skin infections
Erythema Nodosum
Granulomatous Inflammation
Caseous Necrosis
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2 mins
Paracoccidioido-mycosis
Fungi
Latin America
Common in Brazil
Budding yeast with captain wheel formation
40-50 um
Pneumonia
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39 secs
Histoplasmosis
Fungi
2-5 um
Yeast Cells within Macrophages
Starling Bird Poop
Bat Poop
Caves
Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys
Pneumonia
Caseating Granuloma
Erythema Nodosum
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1 min
Succinylcholine
Indications
Inducing Paralysis
Mechanism of Action
Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
Motor Nicotinic Receptor
ACh Receptor Agonist
Depolarization
Phases of Action
Phase I (Paralysis Non-reversible)
Phase II (Paralysis Reversible)
Neostigmine (Reversal Agent)
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2 mins
Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
Names Include "Cur"
Competitive Antagonists
Acetylcholine Competition
Reversal of Blockade
Neostigmine, Edrophonium
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1 min
Blastomyces
Characteristics
Fungi
Hyphae Form at 20°-25°C
Yeast Form at 37°C
Round Yeast
5-15 Micrometer (um or μm)
Single Broad-Based Buds
Thick Doubly-Refractive Walls
East of the Mississippi River and Around the Great Lakes
Signs and Symptoms
Pneumonia
Skin Infection
Bone Infection
Granulomatous Response
Treatment
Itraconazole
Amphotericin B
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3 mins
Candida Albicans
Fungi
Yeast with Pseudohyphae at 20 Degrees C
Germ Tube Formation at 37 Degrees C
Pruritic Vaginitis
White Cottage Cheese Discharge
Fiery Red Mucosa
Diabetics
Antibiotic Use
Esophageal Thrush in Immunocompromised
Diaper Rash
Endocarditis in IV Drug Users
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2 mins
Cryptococcus neoformans
Characteristics
Monomorphic
Encapsulated
Polysaccharide Capsule
Narrow-Based Buds
Latex Agglutination
Pigeons
India Ink
Mucicarmine stain
Signs and Symptoms
AIDS/Immunocompromised
Meningitis
Soap Bubble Lesions in Brain
Pneumonia
Treatment
Fluconazole
Flucytosine
Amphotericin
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3 mins
Pneumocystis jirovecii
Fungi
AIDS/Immunocompromised
Fever
Hypoxemia
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Biopsy
Methenamine Silver Stain
Saucer/cup shaped yeast forms
Diffuse interstitial pneumonia CXR
TMP-SMX
Start prophylaxis when CD4 drops under 200
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1 min
Aspergillus fumigatus
Characteristics
Fungi
Monomorphic
Septate Hyphae
Branch at Acute Angles
Fruiting Bodies
Disease
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA)
Eosinophilia
Increased IgE
Glucocorticoids +/- Azoles
Pulmonary Aspergillosis
TB Cavity
Lung Aspergilloma
Hemoptysis
Invasive Aspergillosis
AIDS/Immunocompromised
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Hemorrhagic Infarction
Necrotizing Bronchopneumonia
Voriconazole +/- Caspofungin
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3 mins
Local Anesthetic Overview
Indications
Minor Procedures
Epidurals
Mechanism of Action
Blocks Na+ Channels
State Dependent
Combined with Vasoconstrictors
Infected Tissue Requires Higher Dose
Drugs
Esters
Amides
Side Effects
Arrhythmias
Cardiotoxicity
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1 min
Lidocaine
Mechanism
Blocks Na+ Channels
Indications
Ventricular Arrhythmia
Anesthetic
Side Effects
Paresthesias
Seizures
Respiratory Depression
Drowsiness
Consideration
Anesthetic Effects Extended with Epinephrine
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1 min
Inhaled Anesthetics
Mechanism of Action
Unknown Mechanism
Inhaled Anesthetic Drugs
HEISMN Drug Name Acronym
Side Effects
Respiratory Depression
Myocardial Depression
Lower Metabolic Demand, Increased Cerebral Blood Flow
Hepatotoxicity (Halothane)
Nephrotoxicity (Methoxyflurane)
Seizure (Enflurane)
Malignant Hyperthermia
Expansion of Trapped Gas
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2 mins
IV Anesthetics
Barbiturates
Benzodiazepines
Respiratory Depression
Hypotension
Ketamine
NMDA Receptor Antagonist
Hallucinations
Opioids
Propofol
Potentiates GABA-A
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2 mins
Opioids Overview
Indications
Pain
Weaning
Cough
Diarrhea
Mechanism of Action
Agonists at Mu (μ), Kappa (Κ), and Delta (δ) Receptors
Decrease Synaptic Transmission
Side Effects
Respiratory Depression
Addiction
Miosis
Constipation
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2 mins
Morphine
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Pain
Myocardial Infarction
Side Effects
Nausea and Vomiting
CNS Depression
Biliary Colic
Constipation
Increased Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Pupillary Constriction
Hypotension
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2 mins
Codeine
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Mild to Moderate Pain
Cough Suppressant
Side Effects
Sedation
Constipation
Miosis
Considerations
Close Monitoring When Breast Feeding
Often Combined with Non-Opioids
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2 mins
Meperidine (Demerol)
Mechanism
Opioid Receptor Agonist
Indications
Moderate to Severe Pain
Post Anesthesia Shivering
Side Effects
Tremors
Constipation
CNS Depression
Sedation
Considerations
Short Term Administration
Increased Risk Serotonin Syndrome
Does NOT cause Miosis
Renal Failure Increases Toxicity Risk
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2 mins
Butorphanol
Indications
Migraine
Severe Pain
Labor
Mechanism of Action
Partial Agonist at Mu and Full Agonist at Kappa Receptors
Less Respiratory Depression
Side Effects
Withdrawal Symptoms
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1 min

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