Qadus Shared "IM" - 161 Picmonics

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IM

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs and Symptoms
Kussmaul respirations
Dehydration
Abdominal Pain
Nausea/vomiting
Psychosis
Fruity breath Odor
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Treatment
Initial Management
IV Normal Saline
Regular Insulin Drip
Subsequent Management (correction of electrolytes)
Potassium (K+)
Glucose
Treat Underlying Cause
Monitoring
Venous pH
Serum Bicarbonate (HCO3)
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1 min
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Diagnosis and Labs
Diagnosis
Blood glucose Increased > 250 mg/dL
Anion gap metabolic acidosis
Decreased pH < 7.3
Decreased serum bicarbonate < 18
Plasma ketones
Other Labs
Hyperkalemia
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1 min
Diabetes Assessment
Assessment Type 1
Juvenile Onset
Absent Insulin Production
Ketosis Prone
Assessment Type 2
Adult Onset
Insulin Resistance
Obesity
Gestational Diabetes
Onset During Pregnancy
Glucose Intolerance
Complications
Retinopathy
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Nephropathy
Neuropathy
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2 mins
Hyperglycemia
Mechanism
Insulin Resistance
Too Little Insulin/Medication
Infection/Illness
Corticosteroids
Assessment
Elevated Blood Glucose
Polyphagia
Polydipsia
Polyuria
Hypotension
Fatigue/Drowsiness
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1 min
Diabetes Interventions
Early Diagnosis
Insulin
Oral Hypoglycemics
Glucose Monitoring
Routine Exercise
Diabetic Diet
Monitor for Complications
Insulin Therapy
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
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2 mins
Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis
Pathophysiology
Increased Anion Gap
MUDPILES
Methanol
Uremia
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
Propylene Glycol
Isoniazid or Iron
Lactic Acid
Ethylene Glycol
Salicylates
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1 min
Diabetes Insipidus Assessment
Polyuria
Nocturia
Low Specific Gravity (USG)
Polydipsia
Dehydration
Hypotension
Tachycardia
Confusion
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2 mins
Diabetes Education
Self-Monitoring (Blood Glucose)
SubQ Injection Technique
Lifestyle Changes
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia
Sick Day Care
Foot Care
Exercise Therapy
Medication
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1 min
Metformin (Glucophage)
Mechanism
Decrease Glucose Production
Increase Insulin Sensitivity
Indications
Type 2 Diabetes
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Side Effects
GI Distress
Decreased Appetite
Lactic Acidosis
Considerations
IV Contrast
Limit Alcohol Consumption
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2 mins
Hemoglobin A1c Lab Value
4-6%
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1 min
Metabolic Alkalosis
Diuretic use
Vomiting
Antacid
Hyperaldosteronism
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26 secs
Normal Gap Metabolic Acidosis
HARD-ASS
Hyperalimentation
Addison's Disease
Renal Tubular Acidosis
Diarrhea
Acetazolamide
Spironolactone
Saline Infusion
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2 mins
Respiratory Acidosis
Hypoventilation
Increased PaCO2 > 45
Barbiturates Depress Central Respiratory Center of Brain
Opioids Depress Central Respiratory Center of the Brain
Airway Obstruction
Respiratory Muscle Weakness/Paralysis
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3 mins
Respiratory Alkalosis
Hyperventilation
High Altitude
Aspirin
Restrictive Lung Disease
Pulmonary Embolism
Pregnancy
Progesterone
Rib Fracture
Anxiety
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1 min
Addison's Disease
Mechanism
Chronic 1° Adrenal Insufficiency
Atrophy
Destruction
Symptoms
Deficiency In Cortisol And Aldosterone
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Increased POMC
Hypotension
Hyperkalemia
Acidosis
Addisonian Crisis
Diagnosis
ACTH (Cosyntropin) Stimulation Test
Treatment
Exogenous Cortisol
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2 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Characteristics
More Common in Women
Exogenous Etiologies
Glucocorticoids
Endogenous Etiologies
Decreased ACTH
Primary Adrenal Disease
Increased ACTH
Pituitary Adenoma (Cushing's Disease)
Paraneoplastic: Small Cell Carcinoma
CRF-releasing Tumors
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2 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Symptoms And Diagnosis
Symptoms/Findings
Osteoporosis
Amenorrhea
Truncal Obesity
Skin Changes
Buffalo Hump
Immune Suppression
Moon Facies
Hypertension
Decreased Insulin Sensitivity
Diagnosis
24-hour urine free Cortisol
Dexamethasone Suppression Test
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2 mins
Iron Deficiency Anemia
Causes
Malnutrition/Malabsorption
Hemorrhage
Signs
Microcytic, Hypochromic Anemia
Decreased Heme Synthesis
Labs
Decreased Reticulocytes
Decreased Ferritin
Increased Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
Poikilocytosis
Anisocytosis
Increased Central Pallor
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2 mins
Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
Mechanisms
NSAID
COX Inhibitor
Indications
General Pain
Fever
Inflammatory Conditions
Side Effects
GI Ulcers
Nephrotoxicity
Rash
Considerations
Avoid with Alcohol
Risk of Thrombotic Event
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2 mins

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