OnlineMedEd Shared "Joints of the Lower Extremity" - 15 Picmonics

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Joints of the Lower Extremity

Hip Surgery
Neurovascular Assessment
No 90 Degree Hip Flexion
No Adduction
No Internal Rotation
Avoid Turning on Affected Side
Considerations
Thromboembolism Prevention
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2 mins
Hip Fracture
Assessment
External Rotation
Muscle Spasms
Shortened Leg
Pain
Interventions
Buck's Traction
Analgesics
Surgery
Considerations
Avascular Necrosis
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1 min
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
Cause
Abnormal Femoral Head in Acetabulum
Newborn Assessment
Positive Barlow Sign
Clicking with Adduction
Positive Ortolani Sign
Clicking with Abduction
Asymmetrical Limb Lengths and Folds (Gluteal and Thigh)
Older Child Assessment
Trendelenburg Sign
Interventions
Abduction Device
Pavlik Harness
Closed Reduction
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3 mins
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)
Pathophysiology
Separation of Femoral Epiphysis from Femoral Neck
Through Growth Plate (Physeal Plate)
Obesity
Male Adolescents
African American
Growth and Sex Hormone Imbalances
Signs & Symptoms
Thigh or Knee Pain
Inability to Bear Weight
Decreased Internal Rotation of Hip
Obligate External Rotation of Hip with Flexion
Diagnosis
Frog Leg Lateral X-ray
Treatment
Surgical Pinning
Complications
Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head
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3 mins
Osteoarthritis Assessment
Mechanism
Aging
Articular Cartilage Destruction
Biomechanical Stress
Signs and Symptoms
Asymmetric
Pain Decreases with Rest
Morning Stiffness under 30 Minutes
Crepitus
DIP and PIP Joints
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1 min
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
Pathophysiology
Idiopathic Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head
Boys 5-7 Years of Age
Symptoms < 18 Months
Signs & Symptoms
Painless Limp
Limited Range of Motion
Intermittent Anterior Thigh Pain
Insidious Pain in Knee
Atrophy of Upper Thigh
Diagnosis
AP and Frog Leg Lateral X-ray
Compression and Deformity of Femoral Head
Treatment
Bed Rest
NSAIDs
Containment with Brace or Cast
Surgery
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4 mins
Total Knee Replacement (TKR)
Indications
Joint Pain (Uncontrolled)
Impaired Mobility
Considerations
Compression Dressing
Frequent Neurovascular Assessments
Continuous Passive Motion (CPM) Devices
Early Ambulation
Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Prophylaxis
Limit Flexion Positions
Monitor for Infection
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2 mins
MCL Tear
Mechanism
Medial Knee Injury
Unhappy Triad
Football
Skiing
Sign
Valgus Stress Test
Treatment
Conservative Management
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53 secs
Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Tibial Tubercle Apophysitis)
Pathophysiology
Apophysitis of Tibial Tubercle
Active, Young Boys
Running and Jumping
Overuse Injury
Recent Growth Spurt
Signs and Symptoms
Diagnosis Made on History
Anterior Knee Pain
Enlarged Tibial Tubercle
Edema
Treatment
Rest
NSAIDs
Activity Restriction
Self-limiting
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2 mins
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)
Pathophysiology
Young Female Athletes
Runners
Overuse Injury
Idiopathic Patellar & Retinacular Pain
Signs & Symptoms
Chronic Anterior Knee Pain
Increased with Squatting or Running
Increased with Prolonged Sitting or Climbing Stairs
Diagnosis
Patellofemoral Compression Test
Apprehension Sign
Treatment
NSAIDs
Conservative Therapy
Bracing
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3 mins
Restless Legs Syndrome
Pathophysiology
Idiopathic
Iron Deficiency
Parkinson's Disease
Signs and Symptoms
Urge to Move the Legs
Unpleasant Sensations in Legs
Worsens with Inactivity
Relieved by Movement
Treatment
Iron Supplementation
Self-care
Gabapentin
Pramipexole
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2 mins
ACL Tear
Mechanism
Non-contact
Popping
Sudden Stop
Change in Direction
Unhappy Triad
Sign
Lachman Test
Treatment
Reconstruction if Severe
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1 min
Meniscus Tear
Fibrocartilage Semicircular Band
Traumatic
Unhappy Triad
Degenerative
Symptoms
Clicking and Locking
McMurray Test
Pain on External Rotation
Treatment
Conservative Management
Surgery
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1 min
Pseudogout
Pathophysiology
> 50 Years Old
Arthritis of Large Joints (Classically the Knee)
Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystals
Diagnosis
Positively Birefringent
Chondrocalcinosis (On X-ray)
Treatment
NSAIDs
Colchicine
Steroids
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1 min
Rheumatoid Arthritis Assessment
Mechanism
Destruction of Connective Tissue and Synovial Membrane
Signs and Symptoms
Inflammation of Joints
Morning Stiffness
Nodules
Joint Deformities
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1 min

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