Rachel Shared "Medicine 1- FINAL" - 63 Picmonics

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Medicine 1- FINAL

Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Upper Quadrants
Right Upper Quadrant
Cholecystitis
Biliary Colic
Cholangitis
Perforated Duodenal Ulcer
Acute Hepatitis
Left Upper Quadrant
Splenic Rupture
IBS (Splenic Flexure Syndrome)
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2 mins
Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Midepigastrium and Diffuse
Midepigastrium
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Pancreatitis
Aortic Dissection
Myocardial Infarction
Any Place
Peritonitis
Hemorrhage or Perforation
Bowel Obstruction
Strangulation
Acute Hepatitis
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2 mins
Acute Abdomen Differential Diagnosis: Lower Quadrants
Right Lower Quadrant
Appendicitis
Salpingitis
Left Lower Quadrant
Sigmoid Volvulus
Sigmoid Diverticulitis
Lower Quadrant (Both/Either)
Ectopic Pregnancy
Ovarian Torsion
Renal Calculi
Pyelonephritis
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2 mins
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Assessment
Pathophysiology
Relaxed Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Signs and Symptoms
Dyspepsia (Indigestion)
Belching
Nighttime Coughing
Dysphagia
Epigastric Pain
Regurgitation
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Globus
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2 mins
Barrett's Esophagus
Histological findings
Metaplasia in Lower Esophagus
Columnar Epithelium
Associated Pathologies
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Esophagitis
Esophageal Ulcers
Increased Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
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1 min
Achalasia
Pathophysiology
Failure to Relax Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Malignancies
Chagas Disease
Loss of Auerbach Plexus
Symptoms
Dysphagia to Solids & Liquids
Diagnosis
Barium Swallow
Bird's Beak Appearance
Manometry
Risk Factors
Increased Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma
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2 mins
Acute Gastritis
Erosive
Disruption of Mucosal Barrier
Caused by Stress
NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
Alcohol
Uremia
Burns
Curling's Ulcer
Brain Injury
Cushing Ulcer
Increase H+ Production
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1 min
Chronic Gastritis
Type A
Type A
Fundus and Body
Autoimmune
Autoantibodies to Parietal Cells
Pernicious Anemia
Achlorhydria
Type B
Type B
Most Common Type
Helicobacter pylori
Antrum
Increased Risk of MALT Lymphoma
Associations
HIV/AIDS
Crohn's Disease
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3 mins
Peptic Ulcer Disease Assessment
Mechanism/Cause
Helicobacter Pylori
Increased Stomach Acid
Assessment
Abdominal Pain
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Melena
Weight Changes
GI Distress
Considerations
Most Commonly in Duodenum
Duodenal: Pain Relieved by Eating
Gastric: Pain Caused by Eating
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2 mins
Peptic Ulcer Disease Interventions
Combination Drug Therapy
Two Antibiotics
Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)
Decrease Acid Secretion
Avoid NSAIDs
Diet and Lifestyle Changes
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1 min
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Disease
Pathophysiology
Gastrin-Secreting Tumor
Increased Gastric Acid
Recurrent Peptic Ulcers
MEN Type 1
Symptoms
Abdominal Pain
Heartburn (Pyrosis)
Diarrhea
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3 mins
Stomach Cancer
Adenocarcinoma
Intestinal Type
Intestinal Type
Smoked Foods Containing Nitrosamines
Achlorhydria
Type A Blood
Helicobacter pylori
Diffuse Type
Diffuse Type
Signet Ring Cells
Linitis Plastica (Leather Bottle Stomach)
Assessment
Acanthosis Nigricans
Left Supraclavicular Lymph Node
Virchow's Node
Subcutaneous Periumbilical Mets
Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule
Complications
Bilateral mets to ovaries
Krukenberg's tumor
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3 mins
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Assessment
Diverticulosis
Outpouching
Diverticulitis
Inflamed Diverticula
Assessment
Abdominal Pain
Abdominal Distention
Flatulence
Fever
Rectal Bleeding
Alternating Constipation and Diarrhea
Considerations
Peritonitis
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2 mins
Diverticulosis and Diverticulitis Interventions
Interventions
High Fiber Diet
Reduce Intra-abdominal Pressure
Stool Softeners
Exercise
Anticholinergics
Considerations
Antibiotics
Bowel Resection
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2 mins
Meckel's Diverticulum
Pathophysiology
True Diverticulum
Vitelline Duct
Yolk Stalk
Contain Ectopic Tissue
Pancreatic And Gastric Mucosa
Signs and Symptoms
Hemorrhage
Intussusceptions
Volvulus
Diagnosis
2 Feet From Ileocecal Valve
2 Inches Long
2% Population
First 2 Years Of Life
Pertechnetate T99
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2 mins
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)
"-prazole" Suffix
Indications
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
Gastritis
Peptic Ulcer
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Mechanism
Inhibit H+/K+/ATPase
Side Effects
Hip fracture
Pneumonia
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2 mins
Mallory-Weiss
Characteristics
Bleeding From Tears in Mucosa
Forceful Vomiting
Alcoholism
Eating Disorders (Bulimia)
Painful Hematemesis
Diagnosis
Endoscopy
Management
Observation
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2 mins
Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis
Gastrin > 1000 pg/mL
Positive Secretin Stimulation Test
Treatment
High-Dose PPI
Octreotide
Surgical Resection
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3 mins
Helicobacter Pylori
Characteristics
Gram-Negative
Bacilli
Curved
Polar Flagellum
Catalase-Positive
Oxidase-Positive
Disease
Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers
Ammonia
Alkaline Environment
Gastric adenocarcinoma
MALT lymphoma
Diagnosis
Serology IgG antibody
Stool antigen
Urease positive breath test
Biopsy
Treatment
2 ABX and PPI
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2 mins
Clostridium difficile
Characteristics
Gram-Positive
Bacillus
Anaerobe
Clindamycin and Ampicillin
Toxin A Enterotoxin
Damages Brush Border of Gut
Toxin B Cytotoxin
Damages Cytoskeletal Structure
Signs and Symptoms
Diarrhea
Pseudomembranous Colitis
Toxic Megacolon
Diagnosis
Detect Toxins in Stool
Treatment
Metronidazole
Vancomycin
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3 mins

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