Jansher Shared "ENDOCRINE" - 69 Picmonics

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ENDOCRINE

Addison's Disease
Mechanism
Chronic 1° Adrenal Insufficiency
Atrophy
Destruction
Symptoms
Deficiency In Cortisol And Aldosterone
Skin Hyperpigmentation
Increased POMC
Hypotension
Hyperkalemia
Acidosis
Addisonian Crisis
Diagnosis
ACTH (Cosyntropin) Stimulation Test
Treatment
Exogenous Cortisol
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2 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Characteristics
More Common in Women
Exogenous Etiologies
Glucocorticoids
Endogenous Etiologies
Decreased ACTH
Primary Adrenal Disease
Increased ACTH
Pituitary Adenoma (Cushing's Disease)
Paraneoplastic: Small Cell Carcinoma
CRF-releasing Tumors
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2 mins
Cushing's Syndrome Symptoms And Diagnosis
Symptoms/Findings
Osteoporosis
Amenorrhea
Truncal Obesity
Skin Changes
Buffalo Hump
Immune Suppression
Moon Facies
Hypertension
Decreased Insulin Sensitivity
Diagnosis
24-hour urine free Cortisol
Dexamethasone Suppression Test
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2 mins
Pheochromocytoma
Cause/Mechanism
Adrenal Medulla Tumor
Increased Catecholamines
Assessment
Episodic Hypertension
Diaphoresis
Abdominal or Chest Pain
Interventions
Surgery
Antihypertensives
Phenoxybenzamine
Metyrosine (Demser)
Considerations
Do Not Palpate Abdomen
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3 mins
Marfan Syndrome
Mechanism
Fibrillin-1 Mutation
Symptoms
Autosomal Dominant
Tall
Arachnodactyly
Pectus Excavatum
Hypermobile Joints
Aortic Aneurysm And Dissection
Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
Subluxation of Lens (Superior)
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2 mins
Hyperkalemia
Assessment
> 5.0 mEq/L K+
Abdominal Cramps
Muscle Weakness
Diarrhea
Arrhythmia
Tall, Peaked T Waves
Interventions
IV Calcium
Infusion of Glucose and Insulin
Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
Kayexalate
Dialysis
Prevention Education
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2 mins
Hypokalemia
Assessment
< 3.5 mEq/L
Muscle Weakness
Arrhythmia
U Wave
Ileus
Hyporeflexia
Interventions
IV K+ Infusion at 5-10 mEq/hr
Give Orally with Food
Nursing Considerations
Monitor Respiratory Status
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3 mins
Normal Electrolyte Lab Values
Potassium (K+)
3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L
Calcium (Ca2+)
8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL
Phosphate (PO43–)
2.5 to 4.5 mg/dL
Magnesium (Mg2+)
1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L
Sodium (Na+)
135 to 145 mEq/L
Chloride (Cl)
95 to 105 mEq/L
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2 mins
Adrenal Gland (Advanced)
Characteristics
Adrenal Cortex
Zona Glomerulosa
Aldosterone
Zona Fasciculata
Cortisol
Zona Reticularis
Androgens
Adrenal Medulla
Chromaffin Cells
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
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2 mins
Anterior Pituitary
Characteristics
Hypothalamic Control
FLAT PeG Mnemonic
Tropic Hormones
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Direct Hormones
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth Hormone (GH)
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2 mins
Hypothalamus
Characteristics
Anterior Pituitary Stimulated Through the Hypophyseal Portal
GHRH
GnRH
TRH
PIF
CRF Released During Stress
Posterior Pituitary Stimulated Through Neural Control
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3 mins
Pancreas
Characteristics
Acinar Cells Release Digestive Enzymes
Ductal Epithelial Cells Release Bicarbonate
Islets of Langerhans
Beta Cells Release Insulin
Alpha Cells Release Glucagon
Delta Cells Release Somatostatin
Somatostatin Inhibits Alpha and Beta Cells
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3 mins
Parathyroid Gland
Characteristics
Blood Calcium Sensor
Parathyroid Hormone
Bone Resorption
Blood Calcium Increases
Vitamin D Activation
Calcium Absorption From The Small Intestine
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1 min
Peptide Hormones
Characteristics
Fast-Acting and Short-Lived
Bind To Cell Membrane Receptors
Stimulate Secondary Messengers
Amino Acid-Derived
Examples
Insulin
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Vasopressin
Oxytocin
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2 mins
Posterior Pituitary
Characteristics
Neuroendocrine Reflex Stimulation (By Hypothalamus)
Direct Hormones
Vasopressin
Increased Water Retention (In Kidneys)
Oxytocin
Increased Uterine Contraction
Mammary Glands Contraction
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2 mins
Steroid Hormones
Characteristics
Nuclear Membrane
Long-Lived and Slow-Acting
Cholesterol-Derived
Intracellular Receptors
DNA Transcription
Examples
Testosterone
Aldosterone
Estrogen
Cortisol
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2 mins
Testes
Characteristics
FSH Stimulates Sertoli Cells
Inhibin B Release
LH Stimulates Leydig Cells
Leydig Cells Secrete Testosterone
Testosterone Causes Male Development
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2 mins
Thyroid Gland
Characteristics
TSH Stimulates T3 and T4 Release
Metabolism Regulation
Blood Calcium Sensor
Calcitonin Release
Blood Calcium Decreases
Bone Building
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2 mins
Acromegaly Assessment
Mechanism
Excess Growth Hormone (GH)
Signs and Symptoms
Protruding Jaw
Large Lips and Nose
Hearing Loss
Enlargement of Hands and Feet
Vision Changes and Headache
Joint Pain
Peripheral Neuropathy
Hyperglycemia
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2 mins
Syndrome Of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)
Pathophysiology
Hypersecretion of ADH
Increased Sensitivity to ADH
Signs & Symptoms
Serum Hypoosmolality
Coma and Seizure
Dilutional Hyponatremia
Cramps and Tremors
Euvolemia
Change in LOC
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2 mins

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